UMEM Educational Pearls - Orthopedics

PCL injuries can sometimes have involvement of the posterolateral corner (PLC)

The dial test can be used to diagnose posterior lateral instability and help differentiate it from isolated PCL injuries

The dial test involves comparing the amount of external rotation of the lower leg at the knee while the knees are in 30° and in 90° of knee flexion.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnk62Y-nDSQ

An isolated injury to the posterolateral corner will result in more than 10° of external rotation in the injured knee that is present at 30° but not at 90° of knee flexion.

http://www.kneejointsurgery.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/DIAL-TEST.jpg

http://www.kneejointsurgery.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/DIAL-TEST-90.jpg

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Nursemaid Elbow

Keywords: nursemaid, elbow (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/15/2017 by Michael Bond, MD
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Takeaways

Take Home Points:

  1. A radial head subluxation that is common in 1-3 year olds
  2. Often secondary to a longitudinal traction on an extended arm
  3. With a classic story radiographs are not required
  4. The hyperpronation technique has been show to be more effective and less painful in reducing it

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Legg Calve Perthes Disease

Keywords: Hip, pediatrics, arthritis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/9/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
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Question

Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head

Children as young as 2 or as old as 12 but generally 4 to 8 (worse in older children)

Fare better than adults with osteonecrosis of femoral head

1 in 10,000

4-5x more common in males, much less common ini African Americans

Unilateral femoral head involvement 90% of the time (Bilateral 10% of the time)

Long term consequences are deformity and arthritis

Typical presentation: Subacute limping for weeks (Painless)

As activity worsens limp, it is maximal at the end of the day (Intermittent)

As in adults with hip pathology, IF pain is reported, it is located at the upper anterior thigh and groin

On examination, look for restriction in range of motion of the hip (compare with contralateral side)

May only present with mild to moderate decreased range of motion of the hip

            30 versus 60 degrees for example

             ABduct both legs with pelvis in neutral OR Place one hand on contralateral pelvis and ABduct affected leg with other hand.

 

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Frozen Shoulder

Keywords: Adhesive Capsulitis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/24/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Adhesive Capsulitis aka Frozen Shoulder

Spontaneous gradual onset stiffness and pain of the Glenohumeral joint

Shoulder capsule becomes thickened and contracted

Often affects patients between 40 and 60 years old

Left> Right shoulder

Women> men

Association with diabetes and thyroid disease

3 clinical stages

1)      Pain – gradual onset, diffuse, severe, disabling, often worse at night

2)      Stiffness – decreased ROM, affects ADLs, improved pain

3)      Thawing – gradual return of motion

Physical examination: Painful and decreased ROM. Evaluate active and passive movement, external rotation and ABduction of the shoulder most affected

Surgical or post traumatic shoulder stiffness usually resolves within 12 months.

Adhesive capsulitis is generally self-limiting lasting an average of 18-36 months.

DDX: Chronic locked posterior shoulder dislocation (VERY IMPORTANT), tumor.

Treatment: NSAIDs, Physical therapy, Intra articular steroids

If this fails, manipulation under anesthesia and/or arthroscopic surgical release

 

 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Shin Splints

Keywords: Runner, injury (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/10/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Shin Splints

Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) aka shin splints is an overuse injury of the tibia

Very common

-10 to 15% of running injuries and over 50% of leg pain syndromes

3 Characteristics

1)      Pain along the posteromedial border of the tibia

2)      Diffuse pain

3)      Pain that is activity related

Risk  Factors

Female sex, increased weight, previous running injury, and

Higher navicular drop (amount of foot pronation) and

Greater hip external rotation with the hip in flexion

Differential  Diagnosis

Tibial stress fracture, compartment syndrome, nerve entrapment (sural), lumbar radiculopathy and popliteal artery entrapment. 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Distal radius fracture

Keywords: Wrist fracture, splinting (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/27/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
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Distal Radius Fractures

High energy mechanism in younger patients

Falls more common in older patients

Higher incidence in older women due to osteoporosis

     May indicate overall poor bone health

  Avoid splinting in positions of flexion (palmer) and ulnar deviation

    Palmer flexed positions may have a higher rate of displacement

Non operative treatment

Extra-articular fx, less than 5mm shortening of radius, Less than 5 degrees of dorsal angulation.

     Consider fractures than are only stable in extreme positions to be unstable

If fx involves the ulnar styloid or DRUG (distal radial ulnar joint) place in long area posterior splint with arm in mid supination (anatomic position of forearm)

 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Reverse Segond Fracture

Keywords: Reverse Segond Fracture (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/21/2017 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Takeaways

It is common teaching that a Segond Fracture is associated with ACL tears.  A reverse Segond fracture, avulsion fracture of the knee due to avulsion of the deep fibers of the medial collateral ligament, has also been described that was initially reported as associated with PCL tears.  However,  a more recent study has not been able to collaborate the PCL connection, but has shown that a reverse Segond fracture is associated with multiple ligamentous injuries to the knee.

Take home point:  If you note a Reverse Segond fracture on your plain flips have the patient followup with orthopedics for a possible MRI, as they probably have other ligamentous injuries that might need treatment.
 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: IT band tendonitis

Keywords: Lateral knee pain (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/13/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
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Iliotibial band tendonitis

IT band is the continuation of the tensor fascia lata and inserts on the tibia at Gerdy's tubercle

Common cause of lateral knee pain seen in Primary care/Sports med clinics

Mechanism: May be due to excessive friction between the IT band and the lateral femoral condyle

Second most common overuse injury of the knee (PF syndrome). Not an acute event.

Affects up to15% of active individuals

Impingement zone is at 30 degrees of knee flexion

Most common in runners and cyclists

Pain localized over the lateral femoral condyle. Better w/ rest. Often occurs at a predictable distance into the run and not at onset.

Exacerbated with changes to mileage or running terrain.

Additional risks include poor shoes (best to change every 300 to 500 miles), excessive foot pronation (pes planus), quad versus hamstring strength asymmetry, weak hip ABductors, leg length discrepancy, tight IT band.

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Lisfranc Fracture

Keywords: Lisfranc Fracture (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/29/2017 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 5/1/2017)
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Takeaways

Lisfranc Fracture: Typically consists of a fracture of the base of the second metatarsal and dislocation, though it can also be associated with fractures of a cuboid.

Pearls:
  • Fracture findings on plain films may be subtle.
  • If in doubt obtain weight bearing AP views of the foot to demonstrate dislocation/fracture.
  • If weight bearing films are negative and you are still suspicious consider a CT scan of the foot.

Click below see image of fracture

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Septic Arthritis in Children

Keywords: Hip, pediatrics, arthritis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/22/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Septic Arthritis in Children

Classic presentation: Pain, fever (may not always be present)

Limited range of motion of joint or refusal to bear weight,

 Joint swelling (difficult to visualize in hip or shoulder),

Limb held in position that allows greatest capsular volume (elbow held in 30° flexion for example)

Diagnostic testing may include diagnostic markers (ESR, CRP) or imaging (US/MRI)

Most common organisms: Staph and Strep, Neisseria (adolescents), HACEK organisms, consider gram negatives in immunocompromised children

DDX: Transient synovitis, osteonercrosis or osteomyelitis, Psoas abscess, acute leukemia, Lyme disease

A common ED presentation is the child with the painful limp

               35% of all cases of septic arthritis

>50% of cases occur in children younger than 2yo

Hip held in flexion, Abduction, external rotation

Fever and inflammatory markers are more sensitive than WBC count and refusal to bear weight

Kocher criteria:

1)     Refusal to weight bear on affected side

2)     Sed rate greater than 40mm/hr

3)     Fever (>38.5°C

4)     WBC count of >12,000 mm3

 

IF
                 - 4/4 criteria are met, there is a 99.6% chance of septic arthritis; 
                 - when 3/4 criteria are met, there is a 93% chance of septic arthritis; 
                 - when 2/4 criteria are met, there is a 40% chance of septic arthritis; 
                 - when 1/4 criteria are met, there is a 3% chance of septic arthritis; 

 

CRP can also be incorporated into a diagnostic algorithm

CRP>2.0 (mg/dl) in a child who refuses to bear weight yields a 74% probability of septic arthritis

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Does spinal manipulation work for back pain

Keywords: back pain, manipulation (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/15/2017 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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We all wish there was a great treatment regimen for our patients with back pain. However, most studies have shown that it really does not matter what you do, as most patients will get better in 6 weeks.

A recent study published in JAMA looked at the role of spinal manipulation to improve pain and function in adults with low back pain. They looked at 26 randomized controlled trails and found that there was modest benefit for spinal manipulation and it was similar to using NSAIDs.

So spinal manipulation may or may not work for some patients. Something to consider along with physical therapy if patients are not getting relief with home remedies.

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Ethnic differences in the EKG patterns of Athletes

Keywords: EKG, athletes (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/8/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Most of our knowledge of the athlete’s EKG is based on white athletes.

African/Afro-Caribbean athletes are more likely to have an abnormal EKG than white athletes in multiple studies.

Different selective criteria have been developed to minimize classification of benign normal patterns as abnormal.

The 2010 ESC criteria classified 40.4% of black athletes as abnormal versus the Refined criteria which resulted in 11.5% of EKGs classified as abnormal.

This reduction was aided by the recognition that isolated anterior TWI in asymptomatic black athletes is considered a benign finding.

               Note this does NOT apply if the TWI extend to the lateral leads

For example, T-wave inversion (TWI) was present in 23% of African/Afro-Caribbean athletes vs. 3.7% of white athletes (usually in contiguous anterior leads).

Other changes included a higher prevalence of early repolarization, RV hypertrophy, and LA/RA enlargement.

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Responsibilities of the local team physician

Keywords: team doctor, sports medicine (PubMed Search)

Posted: 3/25/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Question

Physicians are often called upon to serve as a team physician for a local high school in an official or unofficial capacity.

To aid in preparedness for sport-related emergencies, multiple national organizations have defined institutional best practices.

Knowledge of the following 3 best practice recommendations is important before taking on the role of “Doc covering the game”

     1)The written Emergency Action Plan (EAP) – details the standard of emergency care at the particular venue.

     2)The availability of life saving equipment: AED – where is it, charged and working?

     3)Are the coaches trained in use of the AED and CPR. You can’t be everywhere and often multiple sporting events occur on campus simultaneously. It’s imperative that your first responder (coach or athletic trainer) can perform these tasks until you are able to respond

Please investigate these best practice recommendations before agreeing to serve as the physician for the local high school.

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Groin Pain in Athletes

Keywords: stress fracture, runner (PubMed Search)

Posted: 3/11/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
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22yo college track athlete presents with 3 weeks of gradual onset groin and thigh pain, worse with running, better with rest.

Stress fractures are a common cause of groin pain in athletes, particularly in long distance runners

Fractures occur in the pubic rami and femoral neck 

Ask about a sudden change in training regimens

PE: check for tenderness to deep palpation over the pubic ramus. Ask athlete to stand and support full weight on affected leg or perform one legged hop on affected side. Pain out of proportion to physical examination findings. 

Imaging: XR usually negative. Bone scans can be positive as early as 4 to 8 days after symptom onset. MRI used to diagnose and rule out other causes of groin pain.

Treatment: Rest for 4 to 6 weeks. Consider making patient non weight bearing if walking causes pain especially with femoral neck fractures on the superior side. Inferior side neck fractures may benefit from prophylactic fixation.

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Essex-Lopresti injury pattern

Keywords: forearm trauma (PubMed Search)

Posted: 2/25/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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The Essex-Lopresti injury pattern is the lesser known of the triad of forearm injuries (Monteggia & Galeazzi).

It follows the “rule of the ring” aka the life saver candy rule: You can’t break a life saver in just one place.

These injury patterns are frequently missed because our eyes are drawn to the fracture and miss the associated dislocation.

The Essex-Lopresti fracture pattern involves a fracture of the radial head with concomitant dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUG)

               -With associated interosseous membrane disruption

Think of it as the Maisonneuve fracture of the forearm.

Mechanism: fall from height/high energy forearm trauma.

PE: Suspect if patient has significant tenderness at the DRUG with a radial head fx.

Patients have worse outcomes if injury is missed on initial presentation due to radial migration and instability.

Take home point: Remember the rule of the ring. Remember to exam the elbow with wrist injuries and the wrist with all elbow injuries

https://image.slidesharecdn.com/tgc9gbsusz6yf9gnomzq-signature-b704f322087ef3e158e7aa08078573cfc5a04ec6f8a3a982d1fcb26597be3f6d-poli-150513093239-lva1-app6891/95/elbow-injury-13-638.jpg?cb=1431509645


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Low Back Pain Treatment

Keywords: Back Pain, Treatment (PubMed Search)

Posted: 2/18/2017 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Treatment of  Low Back Pain

A recent recommendation from the American College of Physicians (Internal Medicine) now recommends nonpharmacologic therapies as the first line treatment of acute or subacute lower back pain lasting 12 weeks or less.  This might bring more people to our Emergency Departments so it is important that we know their current recommendations.

Some nonpharmacologic therapies recommended are:

  • Moderate Evidence: Superficial heat
  • Low quality evidence: Massage, Spinal manipulation, or accupuncture

For acute back pain they recommend:

  • NSAIDs or muscle relaxants
  • Acetominophen is NOT recommended. No evidence it is beneficial

For chronic back pain:

  • Start with NSAIDs—>tramadol—>duloxetine.
  • Opioids are only recommended for treatment failures.

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Hand pain in a cyclist

Keywords: nerve, entrapment (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/28/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
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During a busy ED shift, your 40yo charge nurse asked you to look at his hand. He is known avid mountain biker. He has pain in his right 4th and 5th digits. . He feels a lack of coordination and a feeling of “clumsiness” of the hand. Where is his possible nerve compression and what do you expect to find on exam?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ulnar nerve entrapment is sometimes called “handlebar palsy.” 

Compression location is Guyon’s canal.

The ulnar nerve supplies the intrinsic muscles of the hand AND the extrinsic muscles for flexion of the 4th and 5th digits. This is what aids in a “power grip” and why he may have diminished grip strength on exam.

               Also innervates the ADDuctor pollicis and 1st dorsal interosseous muscles (pinch)

 

Note the ulnar nerve also passes through the radial tunnel at the elbow. Entrapment here is called Radial tunnel syndrome or Cubital tunnel syndrome and causes forearm pain and paresthesias in the 4th and 5th digits with grossly normal motor and sensory function.


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

Keywords: Airway, wheezing, exercise (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/14/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 6/26/2021)
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You are covering a sporting event or working an ED shift when a young adolescent athlete without significant PMH presents with SOB and wheezing associated with exercise.

You immediately think exercise-induced asthma, prescribe a short-acting bronchodilator and pat yourself on the back.

While you may be right, there is increasing recognition of an alternative diagnosis

Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

During high intensity exercise, the larynx can partially close, thereby causing a reduction in normal airflow. This results in the reported symptoms of SOB and wheezing.

This diagnosis has previously been called exercise induced vocal cord dysfunction. As the narrowing most frequently occurs ABOVE the level of the vocal cord, EILO is a more correct term.

While exercise induced bronchoconstriction has a prevalence of 5-20%, EILO is less common with a prevalence of 5-6%.

Patients are typically adolescents, with exercise associated wheezing and SOB, frequently during competitive or very strenuous events. Wheezing is inspiratory and high-pitched. Symptoms are unlikely to be present at time of medical contact unless you are at the event as resolution occurs within 5 minutes though associated cough or throat discomfort can persist after exercise cessation. EIB symptoms typically last up to 30 minutes following exercise.

Inhaler therapy is unlikely to help though some athletes report subjective partial relief. This may be explained as approximately 10% of individuals have both EIB and EILO.

In athletes with respiratory symptoms referred to asthma clinic, EILO was found in 35%.

Consider EILO in athletes with unexplained respiratory symptoms especially in those with ongoing symptoms despite appropriate therapy for EIB.

 

 

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Takeaways

Take Home Point:

  • According to a recent article in the NEJM there does not seem to be any difference in the rate of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients given low molecular weight heparin that underwent arthorscopy or had lower leg casting at 3 months.  
  • Overall, the rates of VTE were really low ( casting: 1.4% vs. 1.8%; arthroscopy: 0.7% vs. 0.4%), so there is probably not need for prophalaxis in these patients. 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Concussions injure more than your head

Keywords: Concussions, musculoskeletal injury (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/24/2016 by Brian Corwell, MD
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Concussions are associated with an elevated risk of musculoskeletal injury

 

Significant associations were found between concussion and

Lateral ankle sprain (P = 0.012)

Knee injury (P = 0.002)

Lower extremity muscle injury (P = 0.031)

Keep in mind that 50 – 80% of concussions may go undiagnosed or unreported.

A discussion about risks of early return after concussion should include mention of risks beyond repeat head injury/2nd impact syndrome

Study limits: Retrospective design limits ability to establish causation/reporting bias

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