Category: Critical Care
Keywords: decompensated heart failure, hypertonic saline, furosemide (PubMed Search)
Settings & Designs: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials among patients with fluid overload.
Patients: This meta-analysis included 2987 patients with acute decompensated heart failure.
Intervention: intravenous hypertonic saline + intravenous furosemide.
Comparison: intravenous furosemide
Outcome: all-cause mortality, hospital length of stay
· Hypertonic saline + furosemide treatment was associated with lower relative risk of mortality (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.76%, P< 0.05, I-square = 12%).
· Hypertonic saline + furosemide treatment was also associated with 3.8 shorter hospital length of stay (mean difference = -3.38 days, 95% CI -4.1 to -2.4, P< 0.05, I-square = 93%).
· Sodium creatine also decreased about 0.46 mg/dl (mean difference, -0.46, 95% CI -051, -0.41, P<0.05, I-square 89%) for patients received both hypertonic saline and furosemide.
· Most studies only included patients with advanced heart failure (NYHA class IV, EF < 35%)
· For these patients with advanced heart failure, most studies infused 150 ml of 1.5%-3% saline. However, all studies used very high doses of furosemide (500mg -1000mg BID).
In patients with acute decompensated heart failure, a combination of hypertonic saline and intravenous furosemide was associated with improved outcomes, compared with a single therapy of furosemide.
Liu, Chang PhD, MD; Peng, Zhiyong PhD, MD; Gao, Xiaolan MD; Gajic, Ognjen MD; Dong, Yue MD; Prokop, Larry J. MLS; Murad, M. Hassan MD; Kashani, Kianoush B. MD, MSc, FASN, FCCP; Domecq, Juan Pablo MD. Simultaneous Use of Hypertonic Saline and IV Furosemide for Fluid Overload: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Critical Care Medicine: November 2021 - Volume 49 - Issue 11 - p e1163-e1175 doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005174.
Keywords: seizure, status epilepticus, midazolam (PubMed Search)
This was a retrospective, noninferiority analysis looking at patients 14 years old and younger treated for nontraumatic seizures by EMS with a midazolam dose of 0.1 mg/kg (regardless of route). There were just over 2000 patients with a median age of 6 years included in the study. Midazolam redosing occurred in 25% of patients who received intranasal midazolam versus only 14% who received midazolam via intramuscular, intravenous, or intraosseous routes.
Bottom line: In the prehospital setting, intranasal midazolam at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg was associated with an increased need to redose compared to other routes. This dose may be subtherapeutic for intranasal administration.
Keywords: burr hole, trephination, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, herniation (PubMed Search)
Your patient presents with a large traumatic subdural hematoma with midline shift and clinical evidence of herniation. Your nearest neurosurgeon is several hours away, what do you do?
Initial resuscitation should follow ATLS. Treatment of intracranial hypertension and herniation includes elevating the head of bed, administering osmotic therapies, optimizing analgesia/sedation, and hyperventilation. If all measures have been exhausted and there is a delay to definitive neurosurgical intervention, an emergency department burr hole may be considered.
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Keywords: Concussion, active recovery, exercise (PubMed Search)
The Role of Active Rehabilitation in Concussion Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Concussions make up 70% to 90% of all traumatic brain injuries
During the recovery process, prolonged rest has been shown to slow recovery and precipitate secondary symptoms of fatigue, reactive depression, anxiety and physical deconditioning.
As a result, a gradual increase in low-level activities has been encouraged after 24-48 h of rest.
23 articles for a total of 2547 concussed individuals, 49% female, both kids and adults. Included both sport related and non-sport related concussion.
None of the studies reported any adverse events in symptomatic participants after subthreshold exacerbation aerobic exercise.
Duration ranged from 15-20 minutes per session or until symptom exacerbation.
Subthreshold activity generally targeted 80% of max heart rate achieved during a graded symptom threshold test.
Every study showed improved concussion symptom scores with a physical activity intervention.
Most common treatment duration was 6 weeks (Range 1-12 wk)
Best outcomes if initiated with 2-3 weeks after injury but intervention beneficial in chronic phases of recovery as well.
The intervention of physical activity decreases post concussion symptom scores and the overall effect across studies was large and positive.
Optimal intensity, duration and time to initiation of exercise intervention needs further investigation.
Exercise effect is likely multifactorial including:
One of the best effects I have seen in treating these patients is that active exercise allows a proactive approach to patient recovery. Patients become less focused on every minor symptom or irregularity.
Carter KM, et al. The Role of Active Rehabilitation in Concussion Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021 Sep 1;53(9):1835-1845.
Keywords: febrile infant, neonatal fever (PubMed Search)
What they are: Clinical practice guidelines put together by an AAP subcommittee over a span of several years based on changing bacteriology and incidence of illness, advances in testing, and evidence that has accumulated
Includes: Healthy infants 8 to 60 days of life with an episode of temperature greater than or equal to 38.0 C who at now at home after being born at home or after discharge from the newborn nursery, born between 37 and 42 weeks, without focal infection on exam (cellulitis, vesicles, etc)
For the well appearing 8-21 day old:
For well appearing 22- 28 day olds:
For well appearing 29-60 day olds:
Pantell, R., Roberts, K., et al. Evaluation and Managment of Well-Appearing Febrile Infants 8 to 60 Days Old. Pediatrics. Aug 2021, 148(2) e2021052228
Category: Critical Care
Vent management strategies
Laher AE, Buchanan SK. Mechanically Ventilating the Severe Asthmatic. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. 2018;33(9):491-501.
Keywords: heat stroke, marathon (PubMed Search)
Exertional Heat Stroke at the Boston Marathon
Study goal: To assess for possible associations between exertional heat stroke (EHS) and sex, age, prior performance and environmental conditions
Data sourced from 2015-2019 Boston Marathon races.
Why Boston: The Boston marathon is one of the only marathons that require qualifying times for entry for a majority of runners which yields a high proportion of faster than average runners. The race is frequently characterized by extreme weather conditions, including warm and humid days.
Results: 136,161 race starters. Incidence of EHS was 3.7 cases per 10,000 starters.
Note: Twin Cities Marathon found 3 cases per 10,000 runners.
Mean age of runners was 43.3. Female 45%, male 55%.
Significant associations between sex and age, sex and start wave and age group and start wave.
Sex not associated with increased EHS incidence.
Age < 30 and assignment to the first 2 waves (faster runners) was significantly associated with increased EHS.
All cases of EHS occurred with average wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) were 17° – 20° C.
Linear correlation between EHS and incidence in addition to increases in WBGT from start to peak.
72.5% of cases were race finishers. Non finishers presented after mile 18.
Almost 30% developed post treatment hypothermia.
Almost 2/3rds were discharged directly, the remainder required hospital transport.
Authors estimate needing at least 4 ice water immersion tubs per 10,000 runners with potential of needing 8-10 if race day is humid.
Conclusions: Overall, EHS represented a small percentage of medical encounters but required significant resources.
Younger and faster runners are at high risk of EHS.
Greater increases in heat stress from start to peak worsens risk.
Definitions: WGBT - The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is a measure of the heat stress in direct sunlight, which takes into account: ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, sun angle and cloud cover (solar radiation). This differs from the heat index, which takes into consideration temperature and humidity and is calculated for shady areas.
Breslow RG, Collins JE, Troyanos C, Cohen MC, D'Hemecourt P, Dyer KS, Baggish A. Exertional Heat Stroke at the Boston Marathon: Demographics and the Environment. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021 Sep 1;53(9):1818-1825.
Keywords: roller coasters, summer, death (PubMed Search)
Category: Critical Care
Management of Intermediate-High Risk PE Patients
Weinstein T, et al. Advanced management of intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism. Crit Care. 2021; 25:311.
Keywords: sickle cell, HgSS, fever, sepsis (PubMed Search)
Miller, Scott and Kusum Viswanathan. "Sickle Cell Anemia with Fever." Atlas of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 3rd Edition, edited by Binita Shah, McGraw-Hill, 2019, 510-511.
Category: Critical Care
Background: Interest in moving to balanced fluid administration has grown after publication of the SPLIT trial and SALT-ED/SMART trials, which showed respectively evidence of benefit to balanced crystalloid over normal saline on mortality and major adverse kidney events at 30 days.
Population/Intervention: The BaSICs trial is an RCT in 75 ICUs in Brazil, testing P-Lyte versus NS (with each arm getting two different infusion rates that were analyzed as a separate trial) for volume administration per protocol.
--10,520 ICU patients requiring fluid expansion, expected ICU stay >1 day, and 1 additional risk factor for AKI (age>65, hypotension, sepsis, MV, NIV, oliguria, elevated creatinine, cirrhosis, or acute liver failure).
--Exclusions: severe dysnatremia, expected RRT within 6 hours, expected death.
--Average age was 61, with a SOFA score of 4, and 48% on were elective surgical admissions.
--No difference in 90 days mortality (P-Lyte 26.4% v NS 27.2, aHR p=0.47), AKI or RRT out to 7-days, or in duration of MV, ICU LOS or hospital LOS
--Median study fluid by day 3 was 2.9L in each group
--Higher neurological SOFA score observed in P-Lyte group
--Higher mortality seen with P-Lyte in TBI subgroup (P-Lyte 31.3% vs NS 21.1%, p=0.02)
--Adds contrasting negative data to previous large positive RCTs showing benefit of balanaced fluids
--Expect further reanalysis/metanalysis of BSS versus NS trials
--Signal for harm in TBI pts with P-Lyte correlates with SMART point estimates that were not significant
--Compared to SMART trial population BaSICs had: 2x higher mortality, more planned surgery, received about 1L more study fluid in the first 3ds
--Balanced crystalloid versus normal saline debate will continue considering this large negative trial
--Signal for possible harm in TBI population with balanced crystalloids compared to normal saline
Keywords: Sport concussion, brain injury (PubMed Search)
Athletes with a history of concussion had an average cerebral blood flow of 40 mL per minute, per 100 grams of brain tissue.
Athletes without a history of concussion had an average cerebral blood flow of 53 mL per minute, per 100g of brain tissue.
In the weeks following concussion, those athletes with a prior history of concussion had microstructural changes in the corpus callosum.
Effects were seen in the absence of differences in SCAT domains or time to return to sport.
Acute and Chronic Effects of Multiple Concussions on Midline Brain Structures. Churchill et al. Neurology Aug 2021.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: SOFA, sepsis, oxygen saturation (PubMed Search)
Background: SOFA score has been used as a predictor for poor outcomes in patients with sepsis. However, the original SOFA score utilizes PaO2/FiO2 ratio to calculate the SOFA’s respiratory component. When there are no ABG, thus no PaO2, we have to convert patients’ spO2 to PaO2, and the amount of oxygen support to FiO2 (for example, 2 liters of oxygen via nasal cannula = 0.27). This is cumbersome.
Objective: This study assessed whether spO2 can be used instead of PaO2/FiO2 ratio for SOFA’s respiratory score.
Settings: 8 hospitals across Sweden and Canada
Patients: Adults with sepsis. 19396 patients were included for the derivation group while there were 10586 patients for the validation cohort.
Valik JK, Mellhammar L, Sundén-Cullberg J, Ward L, Unge C, Dalianis H, Henriksson A, Strålin K, Linder A, Nauclér P. Peripheral Oxygen Saturation Facilitates Assessment of Respiratory Dysfunction in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score With Implications for the Sepsis-3 Criteria. Crit Care Med. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005318. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34406170.
Keywords: hyperthermia, pediatrics, car (PubMed Search)
Keywords: ICU requirement score, physiologic score system (PubMed Search)
There are several clinical scoring systems (SAPS II, SAPS III, SOFA, etc.) to assess the severity and/or risk of mortality in critically ill patients. However, the routinely used physiologic scoring systems are not always suitable for poisoned patient.
ICU requirement score (IRS) has been recently developed by investigators from Europe and a validation study (retrospective cohort) has been performed.
ICU requirement score (IRS) components (see inserted table)
Area under the curve for IRS ROC: 0.736 (95% CI: 0.702-0.770)
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: IVF, intravenous fluids, resuscitation, infusion rates (PubMed Search)
-- Unblinded, randomized
-- 10,520 patients clinically requiring a fluid challenge, from 75 ICUs in Brazil
-- Infusion rate 333 mL/hr vs 999 mL/hr
* (Trial also compared plasmalyte vs 0.9% saline, analyzed in separate study)
-- Some notable exclusion criteria: severe hypo/hypernatremia, AKI or expected to need RRT 6 hrs after admission
* Faster infusion rates allowed at physician discretion in patients with active bleeding or severe hypotension (SBP < 80 or MAP < 50 mmHg); patient was returned to assigned rate after condition resolved
* Almost 1/2 the patients received at least 1L of IVF in 24 hours prior to enrollment
-- Results: No sig difference in 90-day survival, use of RRT, AKI, mechanical ventilator free days, ICU/hospital mortality/LOS
Bottom Line: There is not yet compelling evidence that there are differences in patient outcomes in patients receiving fluid boluses given at 333 cc/hr vs. 999 cc/hr.
1. Zampieri FG, Machado FR, Biondi RS, et al. Effect of slower vs faster intravenous fluid bolus rates on mortality in critically ill patients: the basics randomized clinical trial. JAMA. Published online August 10, 2021.doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11444
2. Zampieri FG, Machado FR, Biondi RS, et al. Effect of intravenous fluid treatment with a balanced solution vs 0. 9% saline solution on mortality in critically ill patients: the basics randomized clinical trial. JAMA. Published online August 10, 2021.
Keywords: pressure, exercise, lower extremity (PubMed Search)
Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS)
Similar pathology to acute compartment syndrome except symptoms are related to activity (frequently running) and abate with rest.
95% involve lower extremity
Inappropriately elevated tissue pressure in one or more lower leg compartments associated with exercise
Anterior compartment most frequently involved
As tissue pressure increases, local perfusion is decreased. This leads to symptoms of pain, pressure, cramping and paresthesias.
Also commonly associated with team sports such as soccer, lacrosse and field hockey.
More likely in competitive athletes than recreational.
Patient will be symptom free at time of ED evaluation
Make diagnosis of CECS with history
Diagnosis with compartment pressure measurements done in office with treadmill exercise.
Non operatively, gait retraining programs have been shown to help symptoms. Appropriate if symptoms are mild.
Surgical treatment involves a minimally invasive fasciotomy
Post surgery success rates are between 63-100% with recurrence rates up to 20%
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: cardiac arrest, IHCA, resuscitation, epinephrine, pediatrics (PubMed Search)
This was a retrospective study of 125 pediatric IHCAs with 33 receiving “frequent epinephrine” interval (≤2 minutes). Pediatric CPC score 1-2 or no change from baseline was used as primary outcome to reflect favorable neurologic outcome, with frequent dosing associated with better outcome (aOR 2.56, 95%CI 1.07 to 6.14). Change in diastolic blood pressure was greater after the second dose of epinephrine among patients who received frequent epinephrine (median [IQR] 6.3 [4.1, 16.9] vs. 0.13 [-2.3, 1.9] mmHg, p=0.034).
This study is subject to all sorts of confounding and should be studied more rigorously, but suggests that more frequent dosing for pediatric IHCA may be of benefit.
Kienzle MF, Morgan RW, Faerber JA, et al. The Effect of Epinephrine Dosing Intervals on Outcomes from Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202012-4437OC.
Keywords: RSV, bronchiolitis (PubMed Search)
CDC. Increased Interseasonal Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Activity in Parts of the Southern United States. Health Alert Network. Published online June 10, 2021.
Ralston, S., Lieberthal, A., et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: The Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. Nov 2014. 134(5) e1474-1502.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Modified Clamshell thoracotomy, resuscitative thoracotomy, randomized control trial (PubMed Search)
Resuscitative thoracotomy is a dramatic and heroic procedure used in the emergency department in an attempt to resuscitate a patient in arrest due to trauma. There are a few techniques commonly used, but due to the extreme nature of the procedure no prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been done.
The modified clamshell thoracotomy (MCT) is a technique in which the standard left anterolateral thoracotomy (LAT) is extended across the sternum, but does not involve surgical opening of the right chest. The MCT allows for increased visualization of the mediastinum and thoracic cavity structures.
Sixteen Emergency trained physicians (approximately half attending and half senior residents) from a level 1 trauma center underwent didactic and skill based training on both the MCT and LAT techniques using fresh, human cadavers. Following training they were randomized based on order of intervention, performing both techniques.
Their thoracotomies were assessed by a board certified surgeon and “success” was determined based on the complete delivery of the heart and cross clamping of the descending aorta.
Primary outcome: time to successful completion of procedure
Secondary outcomes: successful delivery of the heart from the pericardial sac (as well as time to delivery), cross clamping of the aorta (and time to clamping), procedural completion and number of iatrogenic injuries.
Overall, there was no statistical difference in primary outcome or successful completion between the MCT compared to the LAT (67% vs. 40%). However, 100% of the LAT resulted in some form of iatrogenic injury (rib fractures, lacerations of the diaphragm,/esophagus/heart/lung) compared to 67% of the MCT technique. There was no associated difference in success when previous experience (attending vs. senior resident) were compared. Lastly, MCT was the favored technique of the majority of the study subjects.
Prospective Randomized Trial of Standard Left Anterolateral Thoracotomy Versus Modified Bilateral Clamshell Thoracotomy Performed by Emergency Physicians. Ann Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;77(3):317-326 doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.05.042nnemergmed.2020.05.042Prospective Randomized Trial of Standard Left Anterolateral Thoracotomy Versus Modified BiProspective Randomized Trial of Standard Left Anterolateral Thoracotomy Versus Modified Bilateral Clamshell Thoracotomy Performed by Emergency Physicians. Ann Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;77(3):317-326 doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.05.042lateral Clamshell Thoracotomy Performed by Emergency Physicians. Ann Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;77(3):317-326 doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.05.042