Keywords: hip, dislocation, DDH (PubMed Search)
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)
Keywords: intuccesption, air enema, reduction timing (PubMed Search)
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, PRES, transplant, calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus, cyclosporine (PubMed Search)
Emergency physicians are familiar with posterior reversible [leuko]encephalopathy syndrome as an entity associated with untreated hypertension. It also happens to be a well-documented entity amongst solid organ transplant patients.
While the exact pathophysiology remains unclear, PRES is characterized by posterior subcortical vasogenic edema due to blood-brain barrier disruption, usually in the setting of elevated blood pressure with loss of cerebral autoregulation and/or endothelial dysfunction.
The immunosuppressants used in this population, namely calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine, are thought to contribute most to this endothelial dysfunction and development of PRES in transplant patients, although high-dose corticosteroids, ischemia-reperfusion injury during surgery, and antibiotics have also been implicated.
Presentation of PRES post-transplant:
Patients with a history of solid organ transplant are at risk for PRES. While ED stabilization of these patients remains the same, recognition of PRES as a potential etiology for a transplant patient's presentation is crucial to proceed with important testing and necessary changes to their immunosuppressive regimen.
Keywords: trauma, transport, police, ALS, penetrating trauma, rapid transport, prehospital, EMS (PubMed Search)
In this prospective, observational study performed at 25 urban trauma centers, police transport (18%) was compared to Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport (81%) for mortality in penetrating trauma patients with an injury severity score over 16. There was no difference in outcome for those transported by ALS.
The authors conclude "Police transport of penetrating trauma patients in urban locations results in similar outcomes compared with ALS. Immediate transport to definitive trauma care should be emphasized in this patient population."
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: COVID, Steroids, Dexamethasone (PubMed Search)
Needless to say, therapeutics for COVID-19 pneumonia have been controversial. From hydroxychloroquine to ivermectin to remedesivir to steroids to bleach (sorry, but it had to be said...), it depends on who you ask whether medications make a difference in COVID, how much of a difference, when they should be given, and what the correct dose is.
Dexamethasone, however, ala the RECOVERY trial, is one of the relatively few therapies supported by the majority of the literature and guidelines, and generally is recommended when respiratory support is required for COVID-19 pneumonia. Further add to this that steroids for ARDS is a long-running point of critical care controversy (e.g. DEXA-ARDS, Meduri, etc), and all you need to say to an intensivist is "how much steroid should I give this patient?" and you can walk away and come back 10 minutes later to find them having not noticed you had ever left.
Wu et all did a fairly small (n=107) single-centered RCT looking at dexamethasone 6 mg daily vs dexamethasone 20 mg daily for COVID-19 requiring O2. There are several notable limitations to this study, but in short it did NOT add support to the notion that higher dose dexamethasone is a good thing for COVID-19 pneumonia. In fact, the 20 mg group trended towards worse outcomes. Small sample size, single-center, limited follow up, variable use of biologics between the groups, and failure to investigate intermediate doses between 6 and 20 are all significant limitations of this trial. Of note, DEXA-ARDS, which was conducted before COVID (2013-2018), looked at 20 mg x 5 days followed 10 mg x 5 days and DID find a significant benefit, as well as pretty darn good NNT and p values (and was a higher quality trial), so in my opinion it is also not unreasonable to use DEXA-ARDS dosing if the patient meets moderate-severe ARDS (P:F < 200) criteria, even though of course DEXA-ARDS was before COVID and Wu et al slightly contradicts it.
When faced with a very sick COVID-19 pneumonia patients many intensivists will do either RECOVERY or DEXA-ARDS dexamethasone (with relatively limited basis to choose one vs the other), and some will do Meduri protocol methylprednisolone (1-2 mg/kg/day). Relatively few nowadays will omit steroids unless there's a contraindication.
Bottom Line: It probably remains a good idea to give dexamethasone to your COVID-19 pneumonia patients with hypoxia, but you can probably stick to RECOVERY (see reference below; 6 mg daily x 10 days) dosing as opposed to higher doses. If they're REALLY sick (P:F < 200), consider DEXA-ARDS (20 mg x 5 days followed by 10 mg x 5 days) dosing.
Keywords: Shock, Shock index, trauma, mass transfusion, mortality, geriatric trauma (PubMed Search)
The use of the shock index (systolic blood pressure/heart rate) value under 0.9 has been shown to be effective in predicting the need for mass blood transfusion as well as mortality for trauma patients age 16-64. Using age times shock index has been shown to be an effective marker of mortality and the need for transfer/transport to a trauma center in those over age 65. The change in shock index over time is also useful for pre-hospital providers deciding the appropriate destination for traumatically injured individuals.
Pandit, Viraj MD et al. Shock index predicts mortality in geriatric trauma patients An analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery: April 2014 - Volume 76 - Issue 4 - p 1111-1115
Category: Airway Management
Keywords: leg pain, compartment syndrome (PubMed Search)
Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES)
CC: Exertional lower leg pain, however, compression of posterior neurovascular structures can lead to nonspecific vascular and neurogenic symptoms.
Challenging diagnosis to make because of close overlap with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS).
Anatomic PAES has a prevalence of 0.62% to 3.5% in the general population. Patients are more likely to be older be older, male, and have lower levels of activity.
Functional popliteal artery entrapment (FPAE) however has no anatomic anomaly. Sx’s are thought to be because of bulky surrounding muscle crowding with repetitive dynamic injury. This is most commonly from the medial head of the gastrocnemius. Patients are younger and more likely to be involved in athletics. Most athletes were involved in sports that put high value on repetitive plantarflexion, such as track and field (45%), soccer (25%), water sports (8%), lacrosse (6%), basketball (6%),
Sx’s: bilateral (25-75% of cases) cramping in the region of the soleus and plantar paresthesias.
Common exacerbating mechanism: ascending stairs or climbing inclines because of leg/knee position of extension with plantarflexion
In one review, 31% of patients who underwent debulking surgery for FPAES had been previously treated and extensively worked up at outside institutions for CECS, and already undergone various compartment releases.
Patients in one study underwent a dynamic CTA protocol. A positive test demonstrated normal flow in neutral position and compression or complete occlusion of the popliteal artery by the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle against the lateral femoral condyle with provocative foot plantarflexion. Images below.
Nearly three-fourths of athletes limited by FPAES demonstrated full return to prior competitive levels with four compartment fasciotomy AND surgical debulking of the anterolateral quadrant of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle.
Lawley RJ,et al., Concurrent Diagnosis of Functional Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome and Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in Athletes. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2022 Oct 1;21(10):366-370.
Keywords: pediatric cardiology, ALCAPA (anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery) (PubMed Search)
Cashen K, Kwiatkowski DM, Riley CM, Buckley J, Sassalos P, Gowda KN, Iliopoulos I, Bakar A, Chiwane S, Badheka A, Moser EAS, Mastropietro CW; Collaborative Research from the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society (CoRe-PCICS) Investigators. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery: A Retrospective Multicenter Study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2021 Dec 1;22(12):e626-e635.
Hoffman JI. Electrocardiogram of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in infants. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013 Mar;34(3):489-91.
Levitas A1, Krymko H, Ioffe V, Zalzstein E, Broides A. Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery in Infants and Toddlers Misdiagnosed as Myocarditis. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Apr;32(4):232-4
Category: Critical Care
Optimal Timing of Source Control in Sepsis
Reitz KM, et al. Association between time to source control in sepsis and 90-day mortality. JAMA Surgery. 2022; 157:817-826.
Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Keywords: sepsis, piperacillin-tazobactam (PubMed Search)
Piperacillin-tazobactam is one of the most commonly used antipseudomonal antibiotics in the empiric management of patients with septic shock. The package insert recommends dose reductions for renal impairment in other infectious etiologies, but the impact of dose reduction has not been previously studied in patients with septic shock.
A recent retrospective, observational cohort study compared outcomes of patients with septic shock who received ≥ 27 grams (at least 3.375 gm q6 hours x 48 h-“NORM”) versus those who received < 27 grams (“LOW”) over the initial 48 h of septic shock (defined as concomitant norepinephrine infusion).
Patients were excluded if they had death or hospice disposition within the 48h study period. The primary outcome was the number of norepinephrine free days (NFD) at day 28. Propensity matching was utilized to account for confounders.
Results: 351 in the LOW group, 928 in the NORM group with 608 pairs in the propensity matched assessment.
Bottom Line: Dose reductions of piperacillin-tazobactam appears to be harmful early in the management of patients with septic shock.
JM Allen, Surajbali D, Ngyuen DQ, et al. Impact of piperacillin-tazobactam dosing in septic shock patients using real-world evidence: an observational retrospective cohort study. Ann Pharmacotherapy; 2022: Sep 25:10600280221125919. doi: 10.1177/10600280221125919. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36154486.
Keywords: trauma, whole blood, blood products, resucitation (PubMed Search)
A fourteen center study enrolling 1623 trauma patients (53% penetrating) comparing cold-stored whole blood vs. blood component products found no difference in AKI, thromboembolism, or pulmonary complications. And more interestingly, patients receiving whole blood were 48% less likely to die than those receiving standard blood component products. Add this data point to a growing trend toward cold-stored whole blood for trauma patients.
Hazelton, J., et al. “Use of Cold-Stored Whole Blood is Associated with Improved Mortality in Hemostatic Resuscitation of Major Bleeding A Multicenter Study” Annals of Surgery October 2022, Volume 276, Issue 4, p. 579-88.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Fluid Management, Pancreatitis, RCT, Resuscitation (PubMed Search)
Enter the WATERFALL trial into the present flood of fluid strategy trials, a multi-country (primarily Spain) open-label RCT of “Aggressive” versus “Moderate” fluid resuscitation with lactated ringers for early mild acute pancreatitis.
Population: 249 adults (1/3 of the planned enrollment) presenting to the ED within 24hrs hours of abdominal pain onset diagnosed with mild acute pancreatitis. Numerous exclusions for local pancreatic complications, acute or chronic organ dysfunction (including CHF and CKD), among many others. Average age of 57, 51% female, 61% due to gallstones, median Charleson index of 2, median BISAP of 1, and 52% clinically judged hypovolemic on enrollment.
Interventions: 1:1 randomization to two complex protocols, both with time points every 48 hours and same criteria for initiating oral diet.
Outcomes/Results: Primary outcome was development of moderate of severe pancreatitis with no difference found between the two strategies. Median fluid at 72 hours was 8.3L (IQR 7.1- 10.8) in the aggressive arm and 6.6L (IQR 4.1 - 8.0) in the moderate arm. Several point estimates favor the moderate group, but none statistically significant and there was not a difference in symptom or SIRS improvement at 72 hours. The trial was stopped after 1/3 enrollment when the monitoring board noted a significantly increased rate of fluid overload in the aggressive arm (20.5%) versus the moderate arm (6.6%).
-Aggressive fluids for mild acute pancreatitis didn’t show benefit over a moderate strategy and showed some harms in contrast to previous smaller studies and some guideline recommendations in mild disease
-Only reached 1/3 of target enrollment significantly limiting analysis
-This was by design not a trial of severe or critical disease
-The open label nature may have affected some endpoints, including safetly endpoints
-Another trial to shift our thinking a bit about how to use and safely limit fluid resuscitation
Aggressive or Moderate Fluid Resuscitation in Acute Pancreatitis. De-Madaria et al. N Engl J Med 2022;387:989-1000
Category: Airway Management
Keywords: trauma, PTX, finger thoracostomy, needle decompression, 2nd intercostal space, 5th intercostal space, pneumothorax (PubMed Search)
Finger thoracostomy is superior to needle decompression in the fifth mid-axiallary intercostal space which is superior to the traditionally taught needle decompression in the second mid-clavicular intercostal space for traumatic tension pneumothorax/trauamtic arrest.
SHARON HENRY, MD, FACS ATLS 10th edition offers new insights into managing trauma patients Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons PUBLISHED JUNE 1, 2018
Scott Weingart, MD FCCM EMCRIT Podcast 62 – Needle vs. Knife II: Needle Thoracostomy? December 11, 2011
Hannon, L. et al. .Finger thoracostomy in patients with chest trauma performed by paramedics on a helicopter emergency medical service Emerg Med Australas 2020 Aug;32(4):650-656.doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.13549. Epub 2020 Jun 21
Andy Neil Stop putting IV cannulae in the 2nd ICS for tension PTX Emergency Medicine Ireland Posted on November 15, 2012
Category: Airway Management
Keywords: knee pain, running injury (PubMed Search)
Pes Anserinus pain syndrome (formerly pes anserine Bursitis)
Occurs at the bursa of the pes anserinus which overlies the attachment of the 1) Sartorius 2) gracilis and 3) semi-tendinosis tendons. Insertions resemble a Goose’s foot.
An inflammatory condition of the medial knee
Location is 2-3 inches below the knee joint on the medial side
1st layer of medial compartment
Patients complain of knee pain just below medial joint line (esp with stairs)
History may include sudden increase in running distance especially with hills (common)
Associated with obesity, tight hamstring muscles and with knee OA
PE: Tenderness to palpation of the bursa possibly with mild swelling
DDx: MCL tear, medial meniscus injury, medial (knee) compartment arthritis, tibial stress fracture
Treatment: Cessation/modification of offending activities, Icing and ice massage, NSAIDs, hamstring stretching and physical therapy. Failure of the above should prompt referral for bursal steroid injection.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: 30 ml/kg, sepsis, fluid overload, ESRD, CHF (PubMed Search)
Have you ever encountered an ESRD patient who missed dialysis because the patient "felt too sick to go to dialysis"? The patient then had hypotension from an infected catheter line? Do we give 30 ml/kg of balanced fluid now?
Title: Outcomes of CMS-mandated ?uid administration among ?uid-overloaded patients with sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Settings: This is a meta-analysis
Patients: Septic patients who have underlying fluid overload conditions (CHF or ESRD).
Intervention: intravenous fluid administration according to the mandate by the Center for Medicare/Medicaid as 30 ml per kilograms of bodyweight.
Comparison: fluid administration at less than 30 ml/kg of body weight.
Outcome: 30-day mortality, rates of vasopressor requirement, rates of invasive mechanical ventilation
Pence M, Tran QK, Shesser R, Payette C, Pourmand A. Outcomes of CMS-mandated fluid administration among fluid-overloaded patients with sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2022 May;55:157-166. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.03.004. Epub 2022 Mar 10. PMID: 35338881.
Keywords: Trauma, Airway Management, Resuscitation (PubMed Search)
Manageing the airway of a trauma patient presents difficulties because of both anatomic and physiologic derangement.
The Bottom Line: Trauma patients requiring intubation are a challenge and should be managed by the most expereinced person in the room. No study shows superiority of direct vs.video laryngoscopy. Use the technique you are most facile with and develop more techniques through courses, mentoring, and expanding your repertoire in less ill patients first. Use induction agents with lower liklelihood of causing hypotension like Etomidate and ketamine (avoid propofol and benzodiazepenes). Avoid hypoxia, hypotension and hypocarbia by resucitating as much as possible prior to intubation (use blood products and pressors where appropriate). Have a plan, a back up plan, and know when to switch to a surgical airway approach. This ia a low frequency, high risk proceedure. Mentally visualize yourself doing this proceedure regualrly to create a comfort level when it is actually needed.
1. Blood/Emesis A. Use a double suction set up with one suction placed into the airway near the esophagus and then moved to the left of the mouth with the second used by the intubator to clear their view.
B. If you can't visualize becaue of vomit/emesis it is very likely BVM and super glotic airways are not going to be possible and you will need to move to a surgical (front of neck) airway.
2. Limited Jaw Opening Cervical collars can impede jaw opening. Loosen/open the collar to allow more jaw opening. Studies show that there is limited movement of C-Spine when the intubator uses caution not to flex the neck during intubation meaning the collar does not have to be in place. No study shows diret or video laryngoscopy to be superior.
3. Blunt or penetrating neck injury Highest level of difficulty. Should be most expereienced intubator. Can use an awake intubation technique if you are adept at this method. Go with the airway approach that gives YOU the best first pass success chance. Another situation where BVM or suprglotic airway device may not work and requires surgical airway. May require low tracheostomy approach.
4. Hypoxia Avoiding hypoxia is a must especially in traumatic brain injured patients. Pre-oxygenate and use the airway technique that is going to give you the best first past chance of success.
5. Hypotension: A. Resuscitate with blood products as much as possible before intubation. B. Use induction agents that are the most hemodynamically neutral such as Etomidate or Ketamine (safe in head injury patients!)
6.. Hypocarbia: Congrats on getting the tube! Now slow down your bagging. Hypocarbia leads to increased injury in traumatic brain injured patients.
George Kovacs MD, Nicolas Sowers, MD
Airway Management in Trauma
Emerg Med Clin N Am 36 (2018) 61-84
Keywords: pediatrics, moderate sedation, airway, laryngospasm. (PubMed Search)
Cosgrove P, Krauss B, Cravero J and Fleegler E. Predictors of Laryngospasm During 276,832 Episodes of Pediatric Procedural Sedation. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2022. epub ahead of print
Category: Critical Care
Point-of-care ultrasound compression of the carotid artery for pulse determination in cardiopulmonary resuscitation
S. Y. Kang, I. J. Jo, G. Lee et al., Point-of-care ultrasound compression of the carotid artery for pulse determination in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Resuscitation, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2022.06.025
Keywords: mortality, exercise, dementia, walking (PubMed Search)
Exericse as preventative medicine!
A recent cohort study of over 2,000 adults (mean age approx. 45) over approximately 11 years of follow-up investigated the association of step count with mortality.
This study found that those participants taking at least 7,000 steps per day compared to those taking fewer steps had a 50%-70% lower risk of mortality. They did not find an association with step intensity.
Another recent study investigated the dose-response association between daily step count and intensity and the incidence of all-cause dementia.
Uk based study of >78,000 adults aged 40 to 79 years with approximately 7 years of follow-up. Data from wrist accelerometer and registry-based dementia diagnoses.
Optimal step dose was 9826 steps. Minimal dose was 3826 steps (value at which the risk reduction was 50% of the observed max).
In this study, steps performed at higher intensity (112 steps/min) resulted in stronger associations.
Conclusions: A great exercise goal for middle aged and older adults is just under 10,000 steps per day to decrease risks of both overall mortality and dementia.
1) Paluch AE, et al. Steps per Day and All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged Adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(9):e2124516.
2) del Pozo Cruz B, et al. Association of Daily Step Count and Intensity With Incident Dementia in 78?430 Adults Living in the UK. JAMA Neurol. Published online September 06, 2022.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: intubation, propofol, RSI, SOFA (PubMed Search)
This is essentially a secondary analysis of a previous prospective observational cohort study with high quality methods. The authors have an excellent discussion of the previous studies on this topic (which for those with an interest I highly recommend you read). They conclude that this study supports previous literature which I would think would be seemingly obvious, which is that those who are more ill to begin with have less tolerance of propofol (in a dose-independent relationship) in this and previous studies. Their use of IPTW extends the analysis on this large international population by addressing confounders in a novel way.
Their overall conclusion is that propofol is bad for the critically ill, and especially bad for those with pre-existing risk factors for intubation complications. I agree: This study suggests in even stronger terms that propofol should be used carefully and probably only in unhealthy patients when other options are unavailable.
Study Background and Characteristics
Russotto V, Tassistro E, Myatra SN, Parotto M, Antolini L, Bauer P, Lascarrou JB, Szu?drzy?ski K, Camporota L, Putensen C, Pelosi P, Sorbello M, Higgs A, Greif R, Pesenti A, Valsecchi MG, Fumagalli R, Foti G, Bellani G, Laffey JG. Peri-intubation Cardiovascular Collapse in Patients Who Are Critically Ill: Insights from the INTUBE Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2022 Aug 15;206(4):449-458. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202111-2575OC. PMID: 35536310.