Keywords: Orthopedics, compartment syndrome (PubMed Search)
- Tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are rare and pediatrics, accounting for less than 3% of all epiphyseal injuries in children ages 11-17 years.
- The typical mechanism is a sudden forceful quadriceps contraction. Patients present with sudden pain after sprinting or jumping with pain, bruising, deformity or swelling over the tibial tubercle and with a decrease ability to extend the leg.
- 10 to 20% of cases result in anterior compartment syndrome related to the rupture of the anterior tibial recurrent artery.
- Although directly measured intra-compartmental pressures can facilitate the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, interpretation of these values can be challenging with healthy children having higher average lower leg compartment pressures than adults. Treatment of subsequent compartment syndrome is often based on a high index of suspicion.
Yue et al. Bilateral tibial tubercle avulsion fractures: Pediatric orthopedic injury at high risk for compartment syndrome. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Available online May 2019.
Keywords: capsaicin, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, marijuna use. (PubMed Search)
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome [CHS] (i.e. cyclic/recurrent nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain) is associated with long-term and frequent use of marijuana. Patients with CHS often report temporary relief of symptoms with hot water/shower exposure. Emergency room providers may encounter a growing number of patients with CHS with increasing legalization of marijuana-containing products.
Topical capsaicin has been gaining interest as a potential adjunct to the conventional management of patients with CHS (e.g. antiemetics, opioids, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics).
A small retrospective study was performed involving 43 patients who had multiple visits, and were treated with and without capsaicin. The primary outcome was the ED length of stay (LOS).
Wagner S et al. Efficacy and safety of topical capsaicin for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome in the emergency department. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019. Sep 4:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2019.1660783. [Epub ahead of print]
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Pregnant, difficult airway (PubMed Search)
Most non-OB physicians experience some fear or anxiety over taking care of the average pregnant patient. There are two patients to consider when caring for these women. Critical illness adds another layer of complexity to an already challenging patient population. Due to the normal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy there are specific and important factors to be aware of when considering and preparing for intubation.
Djabatey EA, Barclay PM. Difficult and failed intubationin 3430 obstetric general anesthesics. Anaesthesia 2009;64: 1168.
Izci B, Vennelle M, Liston WA, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and upper airway size in pregnancy and post part. Our Respir J 2006; 27:321.
Lebowitz PW, Shay H, Straker T, et al. Shoulder and head elevation improves laryngoscope view for tracheal intubation in non obese as well as obese individuals. J Clin Anesth 2012; 24:104.
Keywords: foot fracture, radiology (PubMed Search)
Imaging of Lisfranc Injuries
3 Columns of the midfoot, divided by the tarsometatarsal joints
The Lisfranc ligament
- Extends from the 2nd MT to the medial cuneiform
- Critical to structure and stabilization of the 2nd MT and the midfoot arch
Plain films: AP/lateral/oblique
Consider weight bearing view with contralateral comparison if high suspicion
CT: Can be useful to confirm abnormal plain films
MRI: not done in ED but can be used to diagnose pure ligament injuries
Below is a review of the lines of the foot which will ensure not missing this diagnosis. May be helpful to review with sample imaging.
On AP view:
On Lateral view:
On the Oblique view:
Remember that the lateral margin of the 5th MT can project lateral to the cuboid (up to 3 mm)
Lines drawn on 2 view foot for review
Keywords: UTIcalc, SBI, serious bacterial infection, febrile infant, urinary tract infection (PubMed Search)
Question: In febrile children younger than 2 years, what combination of clinical and laboratory variables best predicts the probability of a urinary tract infection?
Given that urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common source of serious or invasive bacterial infections in young febrile infants, early identification and treatment has the potential to reduce poor outcomes. Wouldn't it be great if there was an easy way to identify patients at highest risk?
Researchers from the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh formulated a calculator (UTICalc) that first estimates the probability of urinary tract infection (UTI) based on clinical variables and then updates that probability based on laboratory results.
The UTICalc calculator can be used to guide to tailor testing and treatment in children with suspected urinary tract infection with the hope of improving outcomes for children with UTI by reducing the number of treatment delays.
Go ahead and give it a click!! https://uticalc.pitt.edu/
Shaikh N, Hoberman A, Hum SW, Alberty A, Muniz G, Kurs-Lasky M, Landsittel D, Shope T. Development and Validation of a Calculator for Estimating the Probability of Urinary Tract Infection in Young Febrile Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Jun 1;172(6):550-556.
Keywords: ethanol, breath analyzer, mouth wash (PubMed Search)
Breath analyzers are commonly used by law enforcment officers to test for alcohol intoxication. Breath analyzer uses ethanol partition ratio between blood:breath of 1:2100 = 1 gm of ethanol in 2100 mL of breath/air.
Mouth wash products are frequently used for oral hygiene, and at times, to "mask" odor of substances. These products are readily available in any grocery stores or pharmacy and contain upto 26.9% ethanol (e.g. Listerine) (18.9% - Scope; 14.0% - Cepacol).
Recently, a small study using healthy volunteers (n=11) was published to investigate the impact of limited ethanol exposure (mouth wash and ethanol vapor) on the breath-alcohol concentration (BrAC).
Blood: No or very low levels of ethanol (0.002 mg/g) were detected in blood at all collection time for both exposures.
BrAC - first collection -- seconds after exposure
Mean time to negative BrAC level (Swedish statutory limit of 0.1 mg/L = 0.01 mg/dL in air) (FYI: US limit = 80 mg/dL)
Ernstgard L et al. Washout kinetics of ethanol from the airways following inhalation of ethnaol vapors and use of mouthwash. Clin Toxicol. 2019 Jun 19:1-7. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2019.1626868. [Epub ahead of print]
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: VAD, LVAD, Heart Failure (PubMed Search)
It's important to remember the differential for the patient with Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) difficulties, as these patients are likely to show up in your ED.
1) Assess the patient as you usually would (signs of life, mental status, breathing, arrhythmias on monitor, etc). Listen for a hum over the chest. Don't expect to feel a pulse.
2) Look at the VAD including controller, driveline, and power source for alarms, disconnections, signs of infection, and other obvious issues.
3) Look at the power (displayed flow), pulsatility index, and pump speed on the controller to help determine the cause of the issue (see attached chart). Once you have a suspected etiology, typical management of these issues is usually similar to non-VAD patients (i.e. gentle IVF for hypovolemia, vasodilators if low flow is due to afterload/hypertension, defibrillation/CPR for arresting pts, etc).
Don't forget to call your VAD coordinator when able. Consider a-line placement for precise evaluation of blood pressure (focus on MAP).
Bottom Line: Consider obstruction/thrombosis, bleeding, infection, hypovolemia, afterload/hypertension, arrhythmia, worsening LV function, and suction events when troubleshooting VADs. The power, pulsatility index, and pump speed help differentiate these conditions.
Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Keywords: droperidol (PubMed Search)
Droperidol is a butyrophenone with primary action as a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. Historically, it has been used to treat a variety of conditions from nausea and headaches to acute agitation. In 2001, the FDA issued a black box warning for risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Following this warning, droperidol was on national shortage for several years, further limiting its use.
Several months ago, droperidol returned to the US market and is available at some institutions. Below is a refresher on dosing and monitoring. Similar to haloperidol, droperidol can cause extrapyramidal symptoms. Consider pre-treatment with diphenhydramine.
Nausea and vomitting: 1.25 mg IV
Headache: 2.5 mg IV, 5 mg IM
Acute agitation: 5mg IM/IV
QTc prolongation is still a concern, especially at higher doses. If using doses > 2.5mg, or using repeated doses, obtain an ECG to ensure safe use of this medication. If the QTc is greater than 440 msec for males or 450 msec for females, droperidol is not recommended. There is little data regarding the risk with lower doses. Utilize clinical judgement and assess patient risk factors.
Perkins J, et al. American Academy of Emergency Medicine position statement: Safety of droperidol use in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2014;49(1): 91-97.
Keywords: nitrous oxide, neurotoxicity (PubMed Search)
Numerous different household products can potentially be misused/abused. One such product is whipped cream charger/propellant that contains nitrous oxide.
Acute toxicity produce dose dependent response
Chronic toxicity causes myeloneuropathy (demyelination of the dorsal and lateral columns of the spinal cord) due to vitamin B12 deficiency
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Atrial Fibrillation, sepsis, critical care, cardioversion, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, rate control, rhythm control (PubMed Search)
One third of your critically ill patients will have atrial fibrillation.
More than one third of those patients will develop immediate hypotension because of it.
More than one in ten will develop ischemia or heart failure because of it.
This is what you should know for your next shift:
#1 Don't wait to use electricity. If your patient is hypotensive or ischemic because of atrial fibrillation, you do not need to wait for anticoagulation before you cardiovert.
#2 Electricity buys you time to load meds. Fewer than half of patients you cardiovert will be in sinus rhythm an hour later and fewer than a quarter at the end of a day.
#3 There is no perfect rate control agent. Beta blockers have a lower mortality in A-fib from sepsis. Esmolol has the benefit of being short-acting if you cause hypotension. Diltiazem has better sustained control than amiodarone or digoxin.
#4 There is no perfect rhythm control agent. Magnesium is first-line in guidelines. Amiodarone can be used even when there is coronary artery or structural heart disease.
#5 Anticoagulation is controversial. In sepsis, anticoagulation does not reduce the rate of in-hospital stroke, but does increase the risk of bleeding. Use with caution if cardioversion isn't planned.
Bosch N, Cimini J, Walkey A. Atrial Fibrillation in the ICU. CHEST 2018; 154(6):1424-1434
There is no standardized national reporting of dog bites in the US. Based on the reported figures, it is estimated that 2% of Americans are bitten annually, and children are affected disproportionately. With kids, it's usually the family dog, and occurs at home.
To avoid infection, usually from Pasturella species, many of us were taught never to primarily repair dog bites by suturing, and to always prescribe prophylactic antibiotic coverage with amoxicillin-clavulanate. However, the literature recommends otherwise in certain cases.
Bite wounds to the face and hands should have special considerations. In general, face wounds heal with lower rates of infection, but provide the greatest concern for cosmetic appearance. Hand wounds have notoriously higher rates of infection.
The latest recommendations for dog bites are as follows:
1. All dog bites should be copiously irrigated under high pressure.
2. Dog bites to the face should be primarily repaired when <8 hours old, as infection rates are not significantly different and cosmesis is greatly improved.
3. Injuries to the hands should be left open, unless function is in jeopardy or there are neurovascular concerns.
4. Prophylactic antibiotics do not always have to be prescribed, especially in low risk patients. Examples of high risk patients include, but are not limited to: primarily repaired bites, injuries in the hand, >8 hours old, deep or macerated or multiple bites, and the immunocompromised.
Paschos NK et al. Primary closure versus non-closure of dog bite wounds. A randomised controlled tira. Injury 2014 45(1): 23l7-40
Chen, HH et al. Analysis of Pediatric Facial Dog Bites. Cranomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr. 2013 Dec; 6(4):225-232
Ellis, R; Ellis, C (2014). "Dog and cat bites". American Family Physician. 90 (4): 239–43.
Keywords: Intracerebral hemorrhage, ICH, BP, variability, outcome (PubMed Search)
Bottom Line: Reduced SBP variability is associated with improved outcomes in ICH.
Follow me on Twitter @EM_NCC
Category: Critical Care
Critical Care Management of AIS
Smith M, Reddy U, Robba C, et al. Acute ischaemic stroke: challenges for the intensivist. Intensive Care Med. 2019; epub ahead of print.
Keywords: Foot, instability, dislocation (PubMed Search)
The Lisfranc ligament is critical for stabilization of the midfoot arch and the 2nd MT
Injuries can range from mild (sprains) to severe (gross dislocation)
Injury may be purely ligamentous injuries or a fracture-dislocations
Difficult diagnosis to make
Mechanisms: MVAs, fall from height or athletic injuries
Common athletic mechanism: Axial load to a hyperplantar flexed forefoot
Injury severity is often underestimated
Severe pain and inability to weight bear
Plantar bruising and bruising throughout midfoot
No specific tests as exam is limited due to pain
Midfoot stress tests
-Often positive but unlikely to be allowed by patient due to pain
Midfoot instability test
Grasp metatarsal heads and apply dorsal force to forefoot.
Other hand palpates the TMT joints and feels for dorsal subluxation
Keywords: NV exam, neurovascular, upper extremity injury, orthopedics, hand, fracture, supracondylar (PubMed Search)
Keywords: vaping, THC, e-cigarette, pulmonary injury (PubMed Search)
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently issued alerts regarding cases of pulmonary illnesses that may be linked to "vaping" (in 15 states with 149 possible cases). These cases are still under investigation but all cases reported vaping weeks/months prior to hospitalization.
Most cases involve young adults who have been using THC-containing products
Common complaints included
What to do:
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Torsades de pointes, QT prolongation, antibiotics (PubMed Search)
A new study confirmed the previously-known antibiotics to be associated with Torsades de pointes and QT prolongation (Macrolides, Linezolid, Imipenem and Fluoroquinolones). However, this study found new association between amikacin and Torsades de pointes/QT prolongation.
The authors queried the United States FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from 01/01/2015 to 12/31/2017 for reports of Torsade de points/QT prolongation (TdP/QT).
Reporting Odd Ratio (ROR) was calculated as the ratio of the odds of reporting TdP/QTP versus all other ADRs for a given drug, compared with these reporting odds for all other drugs present in FAERS
FAERS contained 2,042,801 reports from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. There were 3,960 TdP/QTP reports from the study period (0.19%).
Macrolides ROR 14 (95% CI 11.8-17.38)
Linezolid ROR 12 (95% CI 8.5-18)
Amikacin ROR 11.8 (5.57-24.97)
Imipenem-cilastatin ROR 6.6 (3.13-13.9)
Fluoroquinolones ROR 5.68 (95% CI 4.78-6.76)
These adverse events are voluntary reports
There might be other confounded by concomitant drugs such as ondansetron, azole anti-fungals, antipsychotics.
Teng C, Walter EA, Gaspar DKS, Obodozie-Ofoegbu OO, Frei CR. Torsades de pointes and QT prolongation Associations with Antibiotics: A Pharmacovigilance Study of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Int J Med Sci. 2019 Jun 10;16(7):1018-1022.
Keywords: GSW, mass shooting, bleeding (PubMed Search)
Gunshot injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The Pediatric Trauma Society supports the use of tourniquets in severe extremity trauma. The Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) that is commonly used in adults has not been prospectively tested in children. This study used 60 children ages 6 through 16 years and applied a CAT to the upper arm and thigh while monitoring the peripheral pulse pressure by Doppler. The CAT was successful in occluding arterial blood flow in all of the upper extremities and in 93% of the lower extremities.
Bottom line: The combat application tourniquet can stop arterial bleeding in the school aged child.
Harcke et al. Adult tourniquet use for school-age emergencies. Pediatrics. 2109; 143 (6) e:20183447.
Keywords: drug-induced liver injury (PubMed Search)
Direct hepatotoxicity from a drug is predictable and dose-dependent.
Most commonly implicated agents include:
On the contrary, idiosyncratic prescription drug-induce liver injury is rare, unpredictable and not related to dose.
Most commonly implicated agents are:
Category: Critical Care
The Kidney Transplant Patient in Your ED
Darmon M, Canet E, Ostermann M. Ten tips to manage renal transplant recipients. Intensive Care Med. 2019;45(3):380-383.