UMEM Educational Pearls - By Michael Bond

Attitudes, Behavior, and Comfort of Emergency Medicine Residents in Caring for LGBT Patients: What Do We Know?

Background

This paper was written by some of the thought leaders in the Diversity, Equity and Inclusion realm in Emergency Medicine. Undergraduate medical education has minimal formal hours dedicated to LGBTQ+ health, and EM residency has even less. The authors wanted to assess EM resident comfort in caring for patients who identify as part of the LGBTQ+ community

Methodology

An anonymous service was sent out to CORD and was then disseminated to the residents of the 167 ACGME accredited EM residencies. It was a 24-question survey based on a similar one given to medical students. Overall, a total of 319 residents responded to the survey, with the vast majority identifying as heterosexual and cisgender

Results

The results seem at first to be contradictory. A majority of respondents (63.5%) were either comfortable or very comfortable in addressing the needs of LBGT patients. But when asked about specific behaviors related to providing care, there was more to the story. Only 17.3% of respondents always asked about sexual partner gender, 4.7% always asked about sexual orientation for an abdominal or genital complaint.

Perhaps more disturbing, the survey found that 10% of respondents had observed attending physicians make discriminatory or inappropriate comments about LGBT patients or staff, 2% of respondents were uncomfortable working alongside LGBT physicians, and 6% of respondents disagreed with the statement that LGBT patients deserve the same level of quality care as other patients.

Discussion

This study was published in 2019. Despite some amazing advancement in the LGBT community, we obviously still have a long way to go. This study shows the need for more formalized and routine education regarding LGBT population health issues at both the undergraduate and graduate medical education levels. It also demonstrates that LGBT physicians still experience discrimination in the workplace, even within our specialty. Be kind, be compassionate, be understanding.

 

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Small Bowel Obstruction

  • Although it takes about 11 minutes to diagnose SBO on ultrasound, newer studies have shown a decrease in sensitivity and specificity of SBO with 11 false negatives and 57 fall positives. So PLEASE BE CAREFUL when looking for SBO with ultrasound.
  • Let’s give a shout out to one of our medical students, Alexa Van Besien, who recently took some great images of a patient with a known SBO.

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Aortic Dissection 

  • Ultrasound has a great specificity for aortic dissection. Remember to take a look at your aorta on all cardiac views.

  • Let’s give a shout out to Nikki Cali for diagnosing aortic dissection in a patient with a recent PE. Can you find the dissection flap in this image?

 

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Peritonsillar Abscess 

 

  • Ultrasound can differentiate abscess vs cellulitis and has been shown to increase EP success of drainage as well as lower CT use. If you are concerned about complicated PTA with extension, use your clinical judgment.
  • Let’s give a shout out to Kelsey Johnson and Karl Dachroeden who successfully identified and drained a PTA at bedside as well as Taylor Miller who had a difficult case of phlegmon vs early abscess.

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With the low supply of IV contrast for CT’s remember that you can use your friendly ultrasound to help you diagnose a wide range of pathology. Most often there is a HIGH SPECIFICITY (so if you see it, it is probably there but not a rule out test). Over the next week we will look at  5 cases where residents have diagnosed cool pathology using ultrasound. Just remember that with great power, comes great responsibility
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Appendicitis

  • Ultrasound has a reported high specificity (97.9) for acute appendicitis in moderate to high pre-test probability of patients.

  • Let’s give a shout out to Reed Macy, who diagnosed appendicitis in a male with vomiting and abdominal pain! 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Patellofemoral Syndrome

Keywords: patellofemoral, knee, pain (PubMed Search)

Posted: 3/13/2021 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 11/27/2022)
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Bottom Line: In a recent meta-analysis the risk factors for patellofemoral syndrome are weak hip abduction strength, quadricep weakness in military recruits, and increased hip strength in adolescence.

PatelloFemoral Syndrome: Patellofemoral pain is not clearly understood and is believed to be multi-factorial.  Numerous factors have been proposed including muscle weakness, damage to cartilage, patella maltracking, as well as others.  Patient often complain of anterior knee that is aggravated by walking up and down stairs or squatting. Patellofemoral pain is extremely common. In the general population the annual prevalence for patellofemoral pain is approximately 22.7%, and in adolescents it is 28.9%.

Though commonly taught, the following have no evidence to support that they are a risk factor for patellofemoral syndrome: Age, Height, Weight, BMI, Body Fat or Q Angle of patella

 
 

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Title: Mammalian meat allergy (alpha-gal syndrome) following tick bites

Author: Dan Gingold, MD, MPH

Development of IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1-3-galactose (alpha-gal) appears to be responsible for an acquired allergy to non-primate mammalian meat (i.e., beef and pork) and derived productsAntigen in the salivary apparatus of certain ticks (gross!!) can sensitize an IgE-mediated response to alpha-gal which is present in mammalian meat. 

 
Symptoms are similar to other IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, and can cause a delayed-onset reaction with hives, GI upset, or anaphylaxis after ingestion of red meat. Treatment with standard anti-histamines and epinephrine is effectiveIndividuals with no prior history of meat sensitivity can develop the syndrome at any age, often after exposure to the outdoors in tick-endemic areasSkin and blood allergy testing can confirm the diagnosis. Symptoms can persist for years, but can recede over time if not exposed to further tick bites.

 
In the US, the primary tick responsible is Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma americanum), found primarily in the Eastern, Southeastern, and Midwestern US. Other tick species in Europe, Australia, and Asia have been found to induce the syndrome as well. Interestingly, there is a cross-reactivity with the monoclonal antibody Cetuximab (used to treat colorectal and head and neck cancers), an allergic reaction to which can also induce similar alpha-gal meat sensitivity.

Having first been described in 2009, the syndrome often goes unrecognized; increased physician awareness can inform the evaluation, diagnosis, and education of patients presenting to the ED with undifferentiated allergic reaction.

 
 

 

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Category: Infectious Disease

Title: HIV/AIDS medications and their common side effects

Keywords: HIV, Medications (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/20/2020 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 6/21/2020)
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HIV/AIDS medications and their common side effects
  • Didanosine: pancreatitis
  • Indinavir: nephrolithiasis
  • Isoniazid: hepatitis
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: hyperkalemia, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
  • Ritonavir: paresthesias, metabolic syndrome
  • Pentamidine: hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia
  • Efavirenz: psychosis
  • Dapsone: hepatitis
  • Nevirapine: hepatic failure
  • AZT: bone marrow suppression and macrocytic anemia
Thing you need to know for your certifying exam

Category: Airway Management

Title: Five questions to ask all Patients from Kinjal Sethuraman

Keywords: Patient, centered, communication (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/30/2020 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 11/27/2022)
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Atul Gawande's book Being Mortal is a thoughtful and well researched review of how we treat our ill, elderly and dying.  He suggests 5 questions to ask all patients as an opening discussion 
 
  • What is your understanding of where you are and of your illness?
  • Your fears or worries for the future
  • Your goals and priorities
  • What outcomes are unacceptable to you? What are you willing to sacrifice and not?
  • And later, what would a good day look like?

Asking these allows everybody to understand what the goal really is — what are you really fighting for? It’s for a life that contains certain things.

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Pain Management in Geriatric Orthopaedic Patient

Keywords: geriatrics, orthopaedic, fractur (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/16/2019 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 11/27/2022)
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Pain management is an essential component of care for all patients with orthopedic emergencies, however, one needs to be careful of how pain medication activity can change in a geriatric patient due to:
  1. Decreased hepatic function
  2. Decreased renal function
  3. Multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy that can affect pharmokinetics of pain medications.

Therefore, pain medications must be dosed carefully, which runs the risk of underdosing.  Pain medications can also contribute to delerium, and decreased functional status.

Recommendations:

  1. Start with non-opioid medications in most cases. Consider combination acetaminophen and ibuprofen/naproxen.
  2. Consider regional nerve blocks where applicable due to the decreased risk of systemic side effects and excellent analgesic properties.
  3. If using opioids, start low and reassess and use the lowest dose possible. Remember half-lifes are often prolonged so patient may not need the standard dosing interview.

Category: Orthopedics

Title: Phalanx Fractures

Keywords: Rotation, Fracture, Phalanx (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/18/2019 by Michael Bond, MD
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Remember to evaluate for any rotational deformity when evaluating patients with a phalanx fracture.

The easiest way to do this is to have the patient flex all their fingers. They should all point to the scaphoid. If a finger deviates or overlaps another finger there is a rotational deformity.  One should also make sure that all the nailbeds align.

This video shows how to evaluate for rotation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dhp25UVn7RQ

Even if the finger is reduced otherwise, persistent rotational deformities should be referred to a hand surgeon for consideration of corrective surgery.

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Anesthestic Pearls

Keywords: anesthetic, orthopedics, wound (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/19/2019 by Michael Bond, MD
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When caring for a patient with a laceration we often do lcoal infiltration prior to suturing but remember the benefits of regional nerve blocks

Benefits of Regional Nerve Blocks

  • Less Painful
  • Prevents distortion of the wound which can help with cosmetic closure
  • Allows for a greater area to be anesthesized with less anesthetic use (prevents toxic levels)
  • Can allow for longer anesthetic time

Quick reminder of properities of common anesthetic

Anesthetic Onset of Action Duration of Action Max Dose 
No Epi
Max Dose
With Epi
Lidocaine Seconds 1 hr  4mg/kg 7mg/kg
Bupivicaine Seconds + > 6 hrs  2mg/kg 3mg/kg

Final reminder:  There is no evidence that epinephrine causes necrosis and it can be used safely in digital blocks. Duration of action is max 90 minutes. Even individuals that have injected themselves with EpiPens into their hands have not had any long term sequelue or necrosis seen. Vast majority required no treatment at all.

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Category: Trauma

Title: C-spine Clearance in the mentally altered patient by Ahmed Al Hazmi

Keywords: C-Spine Clearance, altered mental status (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/19/2018 by Michael Bond, MD (Emailed: 10/20/2018)
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Takeaways

Bottom Line
  • High-quality CT is adequate for clearing c-collar in obtunded patients.
  • A follow-up exam before discharging the patient strengthens your decision making and documentation.
  • MRI can be reserved for high-risk patients, patients who are being admitted to surgical critical care units, and those who have residual findings once alert.

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Takeaways

Bottom Line:

  1. The most often cited meta-analysis regarding route of PPI use in bleeding peptic ulcer disease evaluates rebleeding AFTER endoscopic treatment and only ulcers with high-risk features.  There is no good data on optimal pre-endoscopy dosing.
  2. These studies appear to show non-inferiority of intermittent dosing with a trend towards superiority when compared with continuous dosing.
  3. The proper dosing, frequency, and route of intermittent PPI use is widely variable without good data on an optimal regimen.
  4. ED decision of intermittent vs continuous PPI should consider other patient factors including severity of illness, compatibility of IV lines (pantoprazole is often incompatible), and patient disposition.

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Concussion Management

Posted: 6/2/2018 by Michael Bond, MD (Emailed: 6/17/2018) (Updated: 6/17/2018)
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Bottom Line:

Less than 1/2 of patients presenting to EDs and being diagnosed with concussion receive mild traumatic brain injury educational materials, and less than 1/2 of patients have seen a clinician for follow up by 3 months after injury.

In order to improve long term outcomes in patients with concusions please remember to provide the patient with approriate discharge instrucitons and strict instructions to follow up on their injury.

Full details of the article in JAMA can be found at https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2681571

 

 


Category: Misc

Title: Acute Pain Management in Dental Pain

Keywords: dental pain, ibuprofen, acetaminophen (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/6/2018 by Michael Bond, MD (Emailed: 4/7/2018)
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Takeaways

Bottom Line:
 
A recent review in the Journal of the American Dental Association found that Ibuprofen 400mg plus acetaminophen 1000mg was the best regimen for the relief of postoperative dental pain when compared to any opioid-containing regimen.

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Question

75 y/o M is brought in by EMS after he fell off the light rail and hit his head. In the ED he is A&Ox3, and is asking for a urinal. Two minutes later the tech comes running to show you the following:

What is the cause of this patients Jolly Rancher Green Apple looking urine sample? 

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A recent article from JAMA (link below) showed that Ibuprofen and opioids are similarly effective in the short term relief of acute extremity pain when used in combination with acetaminophen.  The study looked at adults with fractures and sprains and randomized them to one of four groups.

  • 400mg Ibuprofen and 1000mg acetaminophen
  • 5mg Oxycodone and 325mg acetaminophen 
  • 5mg Hydrocodone and 300mg acetaminophen
  • 30mg Codeine and 300mg acetaminophen

Pain relief was similar in all groups.

With the growing increase in opioid abuse/addiction it is good to know that in our patients that are not allergic to acetaminophen and ibuprofen (or all medications except for that one that begins with a “D”) we can provide good pain relief without using opioids.

 

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2661581

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Infectious Diarrhea:

Have your wondered what you should do with patients that you suspect have infectious diarrhea. Well the IDSA has updated their 2001 guidelines for the management of infectious diarrhea. The TAKE HOME Points are:

  • Most patients with diarrhea do not need to be tested for an infectious cause. Stop ordering those cultures.
  • Testing IS recommended in the folllowing populations:
    • Patients younger than 5 years
    • Elderly
    • Patients that are immunocompromised
    • Patients with bloody diarrhea
    • Patients with severe abdominal pain or tenderness, or have signs of sepsis.
    • Testing may be considered for C. difficile in people >2 years of age who have a history of diarrhea following antimicrobial use and in people with healthcare-associated diarrhea
  • Some additional recommendations that are noteworthy:
    • Fecal leukocyte examination and stool lactoferrin detection should NOT be used to establish the cause of acute infectious diarrhea
    • A peripheral white blood cell count and differential and serologic assays should NOT be performed to establish an etiology of diarrhea
    • Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) is recommended as the first-line therapy of mild to moderate dehydration in infants, children, and adults with acute diarrhea from any cause

 

You can find all the recommendations at https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/doi/10.1093/cid/cix669/4557073/2017-Infectious-Diseases-Society-of-America

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Nursemaid Elbow

Keywords: nursemaid, elbow (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/15/2017 by Michael Bond, MD
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Takeaways

Take Home Points:

  1. A radial head subluxation that is common in 1-3 year olds
  2. Often secondary to a longitudinal traction on an extended arm
  3. With a classic story radiographs are not required
  4. The hyperpronation technique has been show to be more effective and less painful in reducing it

 

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