Keywords: phenytoin, vinca alkaloids, (PubMed Search)
Extravasation from radiocontrast, phenytoin and promethazine have resulted in significant tissue necrosis sometimes requiring surgical debridement and reconstructive plastic surgery.
Pearl: Keep the infiltrated peripheral IV in and inject hyaluronidase 3-5mL (150U/mL) into the same subcutaneous pocket of medication. Hyaluronidase will increase the systemic absorption of the drug, decreasing its time in the SQ tissue. Extremely safe drug (we have the enzyme in our body) and has been used in neonates as well as adults. Also used for SQ hydration in palliative care and pediatrics.
Controversy: Hot vs Cold - Heat will cause vasodilation and hopefully increase systemic absorption but will likely also increase SQ spread possibly increasing the surface area of injury. Cold will cause vasoconstriction and decrease size of injury however will concentrate drug and possibly worsen the local injury.
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