Category: Airway Management
Keywords: NMS, haldol, haloperidol, fluphenazine, dantrolene, bromocriptine, diazepam (PubMed Search)
NMS is most often seen with the typical high potency neuroleptic agents (e.g haldol, fluphenazine)
All classes of antipsychotics can cause NMS, including low potency and newer atypical agents; antiemetics can cause this as well.
Symptoms usually occur after the first 2 weeks of therapy, but may occur after years of use
Signs and symptoms include:
mental status changes
muscular rigidity (“lead pipe”)
hyperthermia (>38 - 40 degrees).
Autonomic instability (tachycardia, tachycardia and diaphoresis)
Treatment includes discontinuation of the offending agent and providing supportive care.
While no clinical trials have ever been undertaken, dantrolene (muscle relaxant) is commonly used.
Bromocriptine (dopamine agonist) may also be used, and amantadine (dopaminergic and anticholinergic agent) is used as an alternative to bromocriptone
Recently, several case reports have documented the successful use of diazepam as a sole pharmacologic agent. This may be an alternative or a supplement to the above agents