Neurologic manifestations are often the first, yet most insidious, signs of uremia (i.e. electrolyte abnormalities due to renal insufficiency).
Signs and symptoms of uremic encephalopathy range from normal to comatose. Some specific examples include dysarthria, pruritus, restless legs, mental status abnormality, myoclonic jerks, tetany, seizure, confusion, asterixis.
Elevated PTH and calcium levels have been shown to particularly correlate with uremic encephalopathy.
Elevated BUN levels tend to correlate with the degree of decreased level of consciousness.
Ammonia levels are not typically elevated with uremic encephalopathy unless there is simultaneous liver disease.