Category: Infectious Disease
Keywords: c. difficile, antibiotic (PubMed Search)
Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) represents 41% of all CDI cases annually. The association of specific outpatient exposures was assessed in a case control study by Guh, et al. They reviewed the CDC’s active surveillance reporting from 10 states through the Emerging Infections Program (Maryland participates).
Cases: ≥18, + C. difficile stool specimen collected as an outpatient or within 3 days of hospitalization, with no overnight stay in a health care facility in the prior 12 weeks, and no prior CDI diagnosis
Controls: matched 1:1 for age and sex within the same surveillance catchment area as the case patient on the date of the collection specimen. Exclusion criteria: prior diagnosis of CDI, diarrheal illness, overnight stay in health care facility in the prior 12 weeks
Data Collection: telephone interview, standardized questionnaire or comorbidities, medication use, outpatient health care visits, household and dietary exposures in the prior 12 weeks
Results: 452 participants (226 pairs), over 50% were ≥ 60 years of age, 70.4% female, and 29% were hospitalized within 7 days of diagnosis, no patients developed toxic megacolon or required colectomy.
Cases had more health care exposures, including the emergency department (11.2% vs 1.4% p <0.0001), urgent care (9.9% vs 1.8%, p=0.0003). In addition, cases also reported higher antibiotic exposures (62.2% vs 10.3%, p<0.0001) with statistically significant higher exposure to cephalosporins, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole, and beta-lactam and/or beta-lactamase inhibitor combination. The most common antibiotic indications were ear or sinus infections, URI, SSTI, dental procedure, and UTI. No differences were found in household or dietary exposures.
Take-home point: This study highlighted the risk for CA-CDI infection for patients presenting to an ED and reiterates that exposures to fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, beta-lactam and/or beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, and clindamycin significantly increases the risk of CA-CDI infection. Reducing unnecessary outpatient antibiotic prescribing may prevent further CA-CDI. 36% of case patients did not have any antibiotic or outpatient health care exposure; therefore, additional risk factors may exist.
Alice Y Guh, Susan Hocevar Adkins, Qunna Li, Sandra N Bulens, Monica M Farley, Zirka Smith, Stacy M Holzbauer, Tory Whitten, Erin C Phipps, Emily B Hancock, Ghinwa Dumyati, Cathleen Concannon, Marion A Kainer, Brenda Rue, Carol Lyons, Danyel M Olson, Lucy Wilson, Rebecca Perlmutter, Lisa G Winston, Erin Parker, Wendy Bamberg, Zintars G Beldavs, Valerie Ocampo, Maria Karlsson, Dale N Gerding, L Clifford McDonald; Risk Factors for Community-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults: A Case-Control Study, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Volume 4, Issue 4, 1 October 2017, ofx171, https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofx171