Keywords: Urinary retention, formulas (PubMed Search)
Urinary retention in pediatrics is defined as the inability to void for more than 12 hours in the presence of a palpable bladder or a urine volume greater than expected for age.
Maximum urine volume calculation for age: (age in years + 2) x 30ml.
Causes of urinary retention include mechanical obstruction, infection, fecal impaction, neurological disorders, gynecological disorders and behavioral problems.
The distribution is bimodal occurring between 3 and 5 years and 10 to 13 years.
Nevo A, Mano R, Livne P, Sivan B and Ben-Meir. Urinary Retention in Children. Urology 2014; 84(6):1475-1479.