Category: Critical Care
Keywords: COVID-19 (PubMed Search)
Within the past few days we completed a review of complications of COVID-19, to describe what sequelae and clinical patterns, besides the obvious (URI, respiratory failure, ARDS, sepsis, etc), are noted in the literature. This review, along with a plethora of other information focusing on critical care of the COVID-19 patient, will be posted in the next few days to http://covid19.ccproject.com/. Below are the key points from that review:
Acute cardiovascular complications appear to be the most common and concerning sequelae:
-Acute myocardial injury (7-17% of hospitalized patients in one study),
-Myocarditis (primary cause of death in 7% of COVID deaths in one study),
-Arrhythmias (16.7% of hospitalized and 44.4% of ICU patients in one study),
-Venous thromboembolism (incidence unknown).
Concerns for sudden cardiac death, even after recovery, have been raised but are not well documented in the literature. Proposed mechanisms include respiratory compromise, myocarditis, malignant tachydysrhythmias, heart failure, and coronary plaque instability (i.e. Type 1 MI) secondary to inflammation
Co-infection and secondary infection rates are unknown but estimates range from 4.8% to 21%, with higher rates in sicker patients. Viral co-infection is more common than bacterial co-infection, but both may be seen. The ability to rule out COVID-19 by a positive multiplex respiratory viral panel is questionable.
Cytokine release syndrome and secondary HLH are both described complications, but their incidence is unknown. The relation of this finding to purported benefits of tocilizumab (which is also a therapy for HLH) is unknown.
Other extrapulmonary complications are relatively typical of sepsis, such as kidney injury, abnormal LFTs, and delirium
If anyone would like a copy of the full document, which details known complications by organ system, please feel free to email me at firstname.lastname@example.org. Thanks to David Gordon for organizing the project.
Everyone stay safe, and be sure to take care of each other, as well as our patients.