Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic medication that has been trialed in previous small studies to treat epistaxis. The data to this point has not reliably shown a reduction in bleeding at 30 minutes, but has demonstrated an increased rate of discharge at 2 hours and a reduction in re-bleeding events.
The NoPAC study was the largest study to date on TXA for epistaxis. It was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of TXA in adult patients with persistent atraumatic epistaxis to determine if TXA use decreased the rate of anterior nasal packing. Patients were excluded if they had trauma, out of hospital nasal packing, allergy to TXA, nasopharyngeal malignancy, hemophilia, pregnancy, or if they were referred to ENT.
Eligible patients completed 10 minutes of first aid measures followed by 10 minutes of topical vasoconstrictor application prior to randomization to either placebo of 200mg TXA soaked dental rolls inserted in the nare.
496 patients were enrolled. The average patient was 70 years old with stable vitals 150/80mmHg, HR 80 bpm with >60% on oral anticoagulants.
TXA did not reduce the need for anterior nasal packing: 100 (41.3% placebo) vs 111 (43.7% TXA) OR 1.11 (0.77-1.59). There were no differences in the rates of adverse events.
Bottom Line: TXA does not improve rates of anterior nasal packing for patients with persistent epistaxis.
Reuben A, Appelboam A, Stevens KN, et al. The use of tranexamic acid to reduce the need for nasal packing in epistaxis (NoPAC): Randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med 2021;1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.12.013