UMEM Educational Pearls

Category: Toxicology

Title: Radiocontrast Induced Nephropathy

Keywords: RCIN, renal failure (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/28/2010 by Fermin Barrueto, MD (Updated: 8/20/2019)
Click here to contact Fermin Barrueto, MD

Radiocontrast Induced Nephropathy (RCIN)

  • Occurs within 24 hrs of administration followed by oliguric phase
  • Usually improves within a week and rarely needs dialysis
  • Initial injection is an osmotic load, leads to volume expansion and diuresis. Follwed by intense vasoconstriction suggesting possible ischemic role in pathophysiology.
  • There is also a direct toxic effect to the kidneys however
  • High Risk patients: HTN, DM,  Chronic Renal Insuff, Bence Jones proteinuria and large injections of IV dye
  • Possible prophylaxis: There is almost no data studying this effect in the Emerg Dept patient. One trial look at IV acetylcysteine in the Emergent CT (RAPPID trial) did show benefit but has flaws within the study. IV hydration and sodium bicarbonate

References

A rapid protocol for the prevention of contrast-induced renal dysfunction: the RAPPID study.

Baker CS, Wragg A, Kumar S, De Palma R, Baker LR, Knight CJ.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jun 18;41(12):2114-8.