Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Cardiac arrest, transport, EMS (PubMed Search)
Historically, there has been debate on transporting outside hospital cardiac arrests, as well a trauma, with the question of whether to "scoop and run" or "stay and play".
Could hasty transportation of cardiac arrest patients put a damper on resuscitation quality?
A recent propensity-matched study in JAMA analyzed 192 EMS agencies across 10 N American sites.
-Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Cardiac Epidemiologic Registry, which counted 43,969 consecutive cases of nontraumatic adult EMS-treated OHCA (median age 67, 37% of whom were women) in 2011-2015.
-25% of these patients were transported to the hospital
-Matched 1:1 with patients in refractory arrest who were resuscitated on scene
-Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge, secondary outcome survival to hospital discharge with a favorable neurological status
-Duration of out-of-hospital resuscitation was only 6 minutes longer in the intra-arrest transport group (29.1 and 22.9 minutes; not a statistically significant difference)
-Survival to hospital discharge was 3.8% for patients who underwent intra-arrest transport and 12.6% for those who received on-scene resuscitation
-In the propensity-matched cohort, which included 27,705 patients, survival to hospital discharge occurred in 4.0% of patients who underwent intra-arrest transport vs 8.5% who received on-scene resuscitation (risk difference, 4.6% [95% CI, 4.0- 5.1])
-Favorable neurological outcome occurred in 2.9% of patients who underwent intra-arrest transport vs 7.1% who received on-scene resuscitation (risk difference, 4.2% [95% CI, 3.5%-4.9%])
-Intra-arrest transport during resuscitation was associated with worse odds of survival to hospital discharge compared to on-scene resuscitation (4% vs 8.5%, RR 0.48, CI 0.43-0.54)
-Findings persisted across subgroups of initial shockable rhythm vs. non-shockable rhythms (most common initial rhythm was aystole), as well as EMS witness arrests vs. unwitnessed arrests
-This study does not support the routine transportation of patients in cardiac arrest during rescuscitation.
-The neurologically intact survival benefit associated with on-scene resuscitation is both impressive and intriguing.
-However, what implications could this have on ECPR?
-Potential bias due to observational nature of study
-Duration of resuscitations very similar, unknown exactly how long transport times were or if this was in urban or rural populations
-External validity not generalizable due to heterogeneity of patient populations and EMS systems
-Further randomized clinical trials are required
Grunau B, Kime N, Leroux B, et al. Association of Intra-arrest Transport vs Continued On-Scene Resuscitation With Survival to Hospital Discharge Among Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. JAMA. 2020;324(11):1058–1067. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14185
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: gastrointestinal bleeding, TXA (PubMed Search)
Prior to this study, a Cochrane review and meta-analysis of TXA for upper GI bleeds with 7 trials (1654 patients), showed a large reduction in mortality with TXA (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.98, p=0.01)
-Randomized, international, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial at 164 hospitals in 15 countries Juy 2013-2019
->16/18 years old with upper or lower GI bleeding
-1 g TXA IV over 10 minutes followed by maintenance dose 3 g TXA over 24 hours
-Main outcome death due to bleeding within 5 days
-4% (222/5994) died in TXA group vs 4% (226/5981) placebo risk ratio RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.82-1.18
-Arterial thromboembolic events MI/CVA similar in both groups (0.7% vs 0.8%)
-Venous thromboembolic events PE/DVT higher in TXA group (0.8% vs 0.4%)
-Initially calculated all cause mortality until realization that over half deaths were due to non-bleeding causes, changed to death related to bleeding, allowing study appropriate power to detect difference
-Majority of patients had UGIB/variceal bleeding due to liver disease, over 75% deaths in those with liver disease
-Only 16% patients randomized in <3 hours, most >8 hours (CRASH-2 trial found benefit TXA in trauma patients only <3 hrs to administration)
-TXA should not be used in the management of GI bleeds
-Increased venous thromboembolic events associated with TXA administration for GI bleeds
HALT-IT Trial Collaborators. Effects of a high-dose 24-h infusion of tranexamic acid on death and thromboembolic events in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (HALT-IT): an international randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2020;395(10241):1927-1936. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30848-5
Gluud LL, Klingenberg SL, Langholz E. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1