Keywords: wrist, fracture, trauma (PubMed Search)
Is there a set of criteria similar to the Ottawa Ankle or Knee Rule that can be applied to the wrist in children?
The Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules are as follows:
-Swelling of distal radius
-Painful palpation of the distal radius
-Painful palpation at the anatomical snuff box
A positive answer to any of these would indicate the need for an xray.
The study referenced attempted to validate these criteria. This criteria is inclusive of the distal radius in addition to the wrist. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.9% and 37.3%, respectively in children 3 years through 18 years. This model would have resulted in a 22% absolute reduction in xrays. In a validation study, 7/170 fractures (4.1%, 95% CI: 1.7- 8.3%) would have been missed using the decision model. The fractures that were missed were all in boys ages 10-15 and were all buckle fractures and one non displaced radial fracture.
Bottom line: This rule can serve as a guide for when to obtain an xray in the setting of trauma, but it is not perfect.
Slaar et al. A clinical decision rule for the use of plain radiography in children after acute wrist injury: development and external validation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules. Pediatr Radiol 2015; published online August 23, 2015.
Keywords: VBG, DKA, acidosis, hyperglycemia (PubMed Search)
The answer may be no, as long as you have a serum HCO3. In this retrospective study, linear regression was used to to assess serum HCO3 as a predictor of venous pH. Logistic regression was also used to evaluate serum HCO3 as a predictor of DKA. Using a HCO3 cutoff of <18 mmol/L had a sensitivity of 91.8% and specificity of 91.7% for detecting a pH <7.3. A HCO3 < 8 had a sensitivity of 95.2 % and specificity of 96.7 % for detecting a pH <7.1.
Von Oettingen J, Wolfsdorf J, Feldman, H and E Rhodes. Use of Serum Bicarbonate to Substitute for Venous pH in New-Onset Diabetes. Pediatrics 2015; 136: e371-e378.
Keywords: pediatrics, ultrasound, pneumonia (PubMed Search)
A recent meta-analysis published in Pediatrics reviews the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for pneumonia. According to the commentary, pneumonia is the leading cause of illness and death in children worldwide; it accounts for 18% of the total number of deaths in children <5 years, more than TB, AIDS, and malaria combined.
They performed a systematic search on several major databases using a combination of controlled keywords for age <18 years, pneumonia, and ultrasound. Of the initially 1475 identified studies, 8 were ultimately chosen for further evaluation.
Characterizing the meta-analysis:
- Three were conducted in the ED, 2 on the wards, 1 in the PICU and 2 in the NICU.
- Of the 765 children encompassed, the mean age was 5 years and they were 52% boys.
- Five of the 8 studies noted using highly skilled sonographers.
- The studies originated from Italy (5), US (1), China (1) and Egypt (1).
- All studies used CXR +/- clinical criteria as the diagnostic standard; LUS assessment was blinded to associated CXR results in 7 of 8 studies.
- LUS in the diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia had an overall pooled sensitivity of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94-97%) and specificity of 93% (95% CI: 90-96%).
- Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 15.3 (95% CI: 6.6-35.3) and 0.06 (95% CI: .03-0.11), respectively. For reference, remember that an LR >1 indicates an increased probability that the target disorder is present and >10 is a large or often conclusive increase in the likelihood of disease. Likewise, an LR <1 indicates a decreased probability that the target disorder is present and <0.1 is large or often conclusive decrease in the likelihood of disease.
- The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.98. The ROC curve represents a measure of the accuracy of a test, >0.9 is considered to be excellent.
- In order to determine whether there are genuine differences underlying the results of the studies (heterogeneity) the I-squared statistic was implemented, with values consistent >0.45, demonstrating significant heterogeneity.
Bottom line: LUS appears to be an accurate test for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children. The limitation of this meta-analysis is mainly in the small number of studies and the significant heterogeneity between them, likely due at least in part to the fact that they used CXR +/- clinical data as the diagnostic standard. Nevertheless, the results provide evidence for the use of LUS as a cost-effective tool that potentially eliminates ionizing-radiation from the work-up of pediatric pneumonia and has application potential in resource-limited settings.
Pereda, Maria. "Lung Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children: A Meta-analysis." Pediatrics 135.4 (2015): 714-22. Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Web. 7 Aug. 2015.
Keywords: Alvarado score, ultrasound (PubMed Search)
Keywords: migraine, sodium valproate, headache (PubMed Search)
Sodium valproate (VPA) had been studied and found to be effective in the adult population for migraines, but not in the pediatric population. This article was a small (12 patient) retrospective study of pediatric migraine patients looking at pain scores before and after VPA administration. Prior to VPA, patients received NSAIDs, dopamine antagonists, IV fluids and narcotics. Mean pain reduction prior to VPA was 17%. After VPA, pain scores were reduced by an additional 36%.
Sheridan, D, Sun, B, O’Brien, BS, and Hansen, M. Intravenous Sodium Valproate for Acute Pediatric Headache. The Journal of Emergency Medicine. Article in Press. Accepted February 2015.
Keywords: head lice (PubMed Search)
Lice are spread through direct contact as they crawl. Indirect contact (through brushes or hats) is less likely. One study showed that live lice were found in only 4% of infested volunteers pillowcases.
During an initial infestation, lice can reside on the head for up to 4 to 6 weeks before becoming symptomatic. Therefore, when lice are detected at school, there is no need to send the child home (or to the ED). Children also do not need to be kept out of school while receiving treatment.
Bonus: First line treatment is 1% Permethrin applied on day 0 and 9. The patient should wash their hair first with a non conditioned shampoo, apply Permethrin for 10 minutes and then rinse.
Devore CD and Schutze G. Head Lice. Pediatrics. 2015; 135 (5) e1355 -e1365.
Keywords: Traumatic lumbar punctures, fever, infants (PubMed Search)
Approximately ¼ of lumbar punctures (LP) are traumatic or unsuccessful in infants. What is the implication of this?
A retrospective cross sectional study over a 10 year period at Boston Children’s Hospital looked at infants aged 28 to 60 days who had blood cultures sent from the Emergency Department and who had LPs performed. The ED clinicians at this facility routinely follow the “Boston Criteria” to identify infants at low risk for spontaneous bacterial infection (SBI). Traumatic LPs were defined as CSF red cell count greater than or equal to 10x10^9 cells/L while an unsuccessful LP was defined as one where no CSF was available for cell counts. A small portion of the unsuccessful LPs did not have CSF cultures sent.
173 infants had traumatic or unsuccessful LPs. The SBI rate did not differ between the normal LP and the traumatic and unsuccessful LP infants. Median hospital charges were higher in the traumatic or unsuccessful LPs compared to the normal LP group ($ 5117 US dollars versus $ 2083 US dollars).
Bottom Line: Traumatic or unsuccessful LPs lead to higher hospital charges.
Pingree EW, Kimia, AA and Nigrovic LE. The Effect of Traumatic Lumbar Puncture on Hospitalization Rate for Febrile Infants 28 to 60 Days of Age. Academic Emergency Medicine 2015; 22: 240-243.
Keywords: Upper GI Bleeds (PubMed Search)
Keywords: Stroke, congenital heart disease (PubMed Search)
This study is a case control study of the association of congenital heart disease (CHD) and stroke using a base population of 2.5 million Kaiser patients in California. 412 cases of stroke were identified and compared to 1236 controls. Of these stroke patients, 11/216 ischemic strokes and 4/196 hemorrhagic strokes were attributed to CHD (both cyanotic and acyanotic lesions). CHD was found in 7/1236 controls.
Children with CHD and history of cardiac surgery had the strongest risk of stroke (31 fold over the control group). Many of these children had strokes years after their surgery. Children with CHD who did not have cardiac surgery had a trend towards elevated stroke risk, but the confidence intervals included the null. More children without CHD history presented with headache.
Bottom line: Stroke risk (both hemorrhagic and ischemic) extend past the immediate postoperative period in patients with CHD.
Fox CK, Sidney S and Fullerton HJ. Community-Based Case Control Study of Childhood Stroke Risk Associated With Congenital Heart Disease. Stoke 2015; 46:336-340.
Keywords: Trauma, pelvic fractures, imaging (PubMed Search)
Of pediatric patients who have anteroposterior (AP) pelvic xrays (XR), there is a 4.6% rate of pelvic fracture or dislocation, compared to 10% in adults.
This study is a sub analysis of a prospective observational cohort of children with blunt torso trauma conducted by PECARN. 7808 patients had pelvic imaging, with 65% of them having an AP XR. The XR sensitivity ranged from 64-82% (based on age groups) for detecting fractures. All but one patient with a pelvic fracture not detected on XR had a CT scan. The CT scan detected all but 2 fractures both of which were picked up later as healing fractures on repeat pelvic XR. Some of the patients who had a missed fracture on XR were hemodynamically unstable or wound up requiring operative intervention.
The authors support the following algorithm:
-With hemodynamically unstability children, obtain a pelvic XR
-For hemodynamically stable children when the physician is planning to get a CT, there is no indication for XR
Bottom line: Consider using AP pelvic radiographs in the hemodynamically stable patient with a high suspicion for fracture or dislocation who are not undergoing CT.
Kwok et al. Sensitivity of Plain Pelvis Radiography in Children with Blunt Torso Trauma. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2015; 65: 63-71.
Keywords: Bronchiolitis, wheezing (PubMed Search)
Now that respiratory season is upon us, we are faced with an increasing number of bronchiolitis children. The updated clinical practice guidelines for managing these kids were recently published and emphasize supportive care only.
Some of the key points:
-When clinicians diagnose bronchiolitis on the basis of history and physical examination, radiographic or laboratory studies should not be obtained routinely.
-Medications such as albuterol, nebulized epinephrine or steroids should not be administered routinely in children with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis.
-Nebulized hypertonic saline should not be administered to infants with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis in the emergency department
-Clinicians may choose not to administer supplemental oxygen if the oxyhemoglobin saturation exceeds 90% in infants and children with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis
-Clinicians may choose not to use continuous pulse oximetry for infants and children with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis.
Check out the full guidelines for the quality of evidence and rational behind these recommendations.
The bottom line is that not much really works, and we just need to support their respiratory effort and ensure hydration.
Ralston et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: The diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2014; 134: e1474-e1502.
Keywords: Medications, overdose, pediatric, over the counter (PubMed Search)
Keywords: Lactate (PubMed Search)
The world of pediatrics is still working on catching up to adult literature in terms of lactate utilization and its implications. The study referenced looked at over 1000 children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Lactate levels were collected 2 hours after admission and a mortality risk assessment was calculated within 24 hours of admission (PRISM III). Results showed that the lactate level on admission was significantly associated with mortality after adjustment for age, gender and PRISM III score.
Bottom line: In your critically ill pediatric patient, lactate may be a useful predictor of mortality.
Bai Z et al. Effectiveness of predicting in-hospital mortality in critically ill children by assessing blood lactate levels at admission. BMC Pediatrcs 2014; 14:83.
Keywords: cervical spine, pediatrics, NEXUS (PubMed Search)
The NEXUS criteria is widely applied to adults who present with neck pain due to trauma. While this study did include about 2000 pediatric patients, there were not enough young children to draw definitive conclusions. For more information on the evaluation of the cervical spine, see Dr. Rice's pearl from 9/7/12. A 2003 study piloted an algorithm for cervical spine clearance in children < 8 years.
Patients were spine immobilized if: unconscious, abnormal neurological exam, history of transient neurological symptoms, significant mechanism of injury, neck pain, focal neck tenderness or inability to assess based on distracting injury (extremity or facial fractures, open wound, thoracic injuries, or abdominal injuries), physical exam findings of neck trauma, unreliable exam due to substance abuse, significant trauma to the head or face, or inconsolable children.
When the 2 pathways (see attached) were implemented, there was a decrease in time to cervical spine clearance. There were no missed injuries in the study period prior to implementation of the pathway or once it was implemented. There was no significant difference in the amount of xrays, CT scans or MRIs.
Lee S, Sena M, Greenholtz, S, Fledderman M. A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Development of a Cervical Spine Clearance Protocol: Process, Rationale, and Initial Results. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 2003; 38 (3): 358-362.
Keywords: URI, sinusitis (PubMed Search)
6-7% of kids presenting with upper respiratory symptoms will meet the definition for ABS.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) reviewed the literature and developed clinical practice guideline regarding the diagnosis and management of ABS in children and adolescents.
The AAP defines ABS as: persistent nasal discharge or daytime cough > 10 days OR a worsening course after initial improvement OR severe symptom onset with fever > 39C and purulent nasal discharge for 3 consecutive days.
No imaging is necessary with a normal neurological exam.
Treatment includes amoxicillin with or without clauvulinic acid (based on local resistance patterns) or observation for 3 days.
Optimal duration of antibiotics has not been well studied in children but durations of 10-28 days have been reported.
If symptoms are worsening or there is no improvement, change the antibiotic.
There is not enough evidence to make a recommendation on decongestants, antihistamines or nasal irrigation.
Wald et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children Aged 1 to 18 Years. Pediatrics. Volume 132, Number 1, July 2013.
Keywords: tympanostomy tubes, antibiotics, otorrhea (PubMed Search)
Up to 26% of patients with tympanostomy tubes (PE tubes) can suffer from clinically manifested otorrhea. This is thought to be the result of acute otitis media that is draining through the tube. Previous small studies suggested that antibiotic ear drops are as effective or more effective and with less side effects for its treatment. This study compared treatment with antibiotic/glucocorticoid ear drops (hydrocortisone-bacitracin-
Study population: Children 1-10 years with otorrhea for up to 7 days in the Netherlands
Exclusion criteria included: T > 38.5 C, antibiotics in previous 2 weeks, PE tubes placed within 2 weeks, previous otorrhea in past 4 weeks, 3 or more episodes of otorrhea in past 6 months
Patient recruitment: ENT and PMD approached pt with PE tubes and they were told to call if otorrhea developed and a home visit would be arranged
Study type: open-label, pragmatic, randomized control trial
Primary outcome: Treatment failure defined as the presence of otorrhea observed otoscopically
Secondary outcome: based on parental diaries of symptoms, resolution and recurrence over 6 months
Results: After 2 weeks, only 5% of the ear drop group compared to 44% of the oral antibiotic group and 55% of the observation group still had otorrhea. There was not a significant difference between those treated with oral antibiotics and those that were observed. Otorrhea
lasted 4 days in the ear drop group compared to 5 days with oral antibiotics and 12 days with observation (all statistically significant).
Key differences: The antibiotic dosing and choice of ear drops are based on availability and local organism susceptibility.
Bottom line: For otorrhea in the presence of PE tubes, ear drops (with a non-aminoglycoside antibiotic and a steroid) may be more beneficial than oral antibiotics or observation.
van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, Venekamp RP, Rovers MM, Schilder AG. A trial of treatment for acute otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes. N Engl J Med 2014; 370:723-33.
Keywords: Ultrasound, pediatrics, appendicitis (PubMed Search)
Keywords: Psychiatric clearance, pediatric (PubMed Search)
Mental health-related visits account for 1.6–6% of ED encounters. Patients with acute psychosis are often brought to the ED for clearance prior to psychiatric evaluation. Is this necessary?
Background: Several adult studies have shown that only 0–4% of patients with isolated psychiatric complaints have organic diagnoses requiring urgent treatment. Routine ED laboratory testing in adults is low yield still, with one study identifying abnormalities in only 2 of 352 patients—both mild hypokalemia. A pediatric study found that 207 of 209 patients were medically cleared.
This study was a retrospective review of pediatric psychiatric patients presenting to a an urban California hospital. They examined 798 patients who had an involuntary psychiatric hold placed by a psychiatric mobile response team.
The authors concluded that few pediatric patients brought to the ED on an involuntary hold required a medical screen and perhaps use of basic criteria in the prehospital setting to determine who required a medical screen (altered mental status, ingestion, hanging, traumatic injury, unrelated medical complaint, sexual assault) could have led to significant savings.
Santillanes, G et al. Is Medical Clearance Necessary for Pediatric Psychiatric Patients? J Emerg Med. 2014 Mar 15. pii: S0736-4679(13)01455-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Keywords: scabies, pediatrics (PubMed Search)
Scabies is considered by the WHO to be one of the main neglected diseases with approximately 300 million cases worldwide each year. One third of cases of scabies seen by dermatologists are in kids less than 16 years old. The belief had been that presentation varies by age. One French study reported a first time miss rate of more than 41% and an overall diagnostic delay of 62 days.
A prospective, multi center observational study of patients with confirmed scabies sought to determine common phenotypes in children. All patients were seen by dermatologists in France and administered standard questionnaires. They were divided into 3 age groups, <2 years, 2-15 years and > 15 years. 323 patients were included.
The study found that:
-infants were more likely to have facial involvement and nodules, especially on the back and axilla
-relapse was more common in < 15 year olds - this was hypothesized to be due to poor compliance with treatment to the head
-family members with itch, or planter or scalp involvement were independently associated with diagnosis of scabies in kids < 2 years
-burrows were seen in 78%, nodules in 67% and vesicles of 43% of patients (see photo)
-itching was absent in up to 10% of patients
Bottom line: Have a high suspicion for scabies in any rash.
Keywords: Head injury, vomiting, PECARN (PubMed Search)