Hospitalization for Suicide Ideation or Attempt: 2008-2015. Pediatrics. Pelmons. 2018
Special Considerations in the Pediatric Psychiatric Population. Psychiatric Clinics. Santillanes 2017.
Sarah Edwards, DO. Medical & Program Director. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Davies, P., and I. Maconochie. “The relationship between body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate in children.” Emergency Medicine Journal 26.9 (2009): 641-643.
Daymont, Carrie, Christopher P. Bonafide, and Patrick W. Brady. “Heart Rates in Hospitalized Children by Age and Body Temperature.” Pediatrics 135.5 (2015): e1173-e1181.d
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Pediatric Fever Guidelines, 2007 and 2013
Bachur, R. Comparison of acute treatment regimens for migraine in the emergency department. Pediatrics.2015;135(2)232-238.
Gelfand, A. Treatment of pediatric migraine in the emregency department. Ped Neuro.2012;47(4)233-241.
Kacperski, J. The optimal management of headaches in chidlren and adolescents. Ther Adv Neuro Disor. 2016;9(1)53-68.
Sheridan, D. Pediatric Migraine: Abortive treatment in the emergency department. Headache. 2014;54(2):235-245.
Children less than 8 years, and especially infants, are more susceptible to upper cervical spine injury. Moreover, validated decision rules for suspected cervical spine injury imaging have not been proven to be as sensitive or specific for children less than 8 years of age.
The pediatric cervical spine has greater elasticity of the ligamentous structures, while the cartilaginous structures are less calcified. An infant's neck musculature is underdeveloped, with a disproportionally large head. These factors increase the risk of cervical spine injury, and can make it difficult to properly place protective cervical collars in infants while assessing them for injury.
In very young children, consider placing padding under the shoulders to prevent abnormal flexion that can occur with placement of a cervical collar, and consider having a lower threshold to image if mechanism history or exam is concerning.
Children are not little adults! Clinicians must acknowledge the anatomic differences, varying age-related ability to cooperate with examination, pediatric specific injury mechanisms, and decreased reliability of validated decision rules for imaging in children, especially when younger than 8 years old.
Murray BL, Cordle RJ: Pediatric Trauma, in Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, et al (eds): Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice, ed 9. Philadelphia, Elsevier 2018, (Ch) 165:p 2042-2057.
Leonard JR, Jaffe DM, Kuppermann N, et al. Cervical spine injury patterns in children. Pediatrics 2014; 133:e1179.
Therapeutic Hypothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children. Mosler FW, et al. N Eng J Med 2015; 372:1898-1908. May 2015
Debrovsky AS, Kempinska A, Bank I, Mok E. Accuracy of Ultrasonography for Determining Successful Realignment of Pediatric Forearm Fractures. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Vol 65;Number 3. March 2015.
Andolfatto G, et al. Intranasal ketamine for analgesia in theemergency department: a prospective observational study. Acad Emerg Med. 2013. Oct;20(10):1050-4.
Tsze DS, et al. Intranasal ketamine for procedural sedation in pediatric laceration repair: a preliminary report. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012. August;28(8);767-70.
Hall D, et al. Intranasal ketamine for procedural sedation. Emerg Med J. 2014;31:789-90.
NMS Pediatrics. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 4th Edition. Paul Dworkin editor.
Bennett NJ, et al. Pediatric Pneumonia Treatment and Management. Medscape. April 2014.
AAP. Management of Communty-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older than 3 Months of Age. Pediatrics. Vol 128 No 6 December 1, 2011.
Severe Respiratory Illness Associated With Enterovirus D68--Missouri and Illinois, 2014. CDC MMWR. Vol 63. September 2014.
Wolfe TR, Braude DA. Intranasal Medication Delivery for Children: A Review and Update. Pediatrics. 2010;126:532-7.
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Chiaretti A, Barone G, Rigante D, et al. Intranasal lidocaine and midazolam for procedural sedation in children. Arch Dis Child 2011;96:160-3.
Cruz AT, Perry AM, Williams EA, et al. Implementaion of Goal-Directed Therapy for Children With Suspected Sepsis in the Emergency Department. Pediatrics 2011;127;e758.
Wang CJ, et al. Quality-of-care indicators for children with sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 2011;128:484.
Berini JC, et al. Fatal hemolysis induced by Ceftriaxone in a child with sickle cell anemia. 1995;126:813.
Category: Airway Management
2012 PREP Self-Assessment. American Academy of Pediatrics
Clinically important traumatic brain injuries are rare in children. The PECARN study provides decision rules for when to avoid unnecessarily obtaining a CT for children who have suffered head trauma.
For children < 2 years old: <0.02% risk of clinically important TBI
For children > 2 years old: <0.05% risk of clinically important TBI
Kuppermann N, et al. Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. Identification of childrent at very low risk of clinically-important brain injuries after head trauma: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1160-70.
Risk stratisfication score introducted by Maden Samuel in 2002.
The Pediatric Appendicitis Score had a sensitivity of 1, speciificity of 0.92, positive predictive value of 0.96, and negative predictive value of 0.99
Scores of 4 or less are least likely to have acute appendicitis, while scores of 8 or more are most likely.
Pediatric Appendicits Score. Samuel, M. J Pedia Surg.37:877-888. 2002.