UMEM Educational Pearls - Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Insulin for Hyperkalemia

Keywords: Insulin, Hyperkalemia, Dextrose (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/6/2017 by Wesley Oliver (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Strategies for Hyperkalemia Management

Stabilize cardiac membrane

Calcium gluconate

Intracellular movement in skeletal muscles

Albuterol

Sodium Bicarbonate

Insulin

Potassium excretion

Loop Diuretics

Kayexalate

Patiromer (chronic use only)

Potassium removal

Dialysis

 

Insulin mechanism of action for hyperkalemia:

· Binds to skeletal muscle receptors

· Increased activity of the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase and glucose transporter GLUT4

· Glycemic response occurs at lower levels of insulin

· Potassium transport activity increases as insulin levels increase

Patients with insulin resistance due to type-2 diabetes do not become resistant to the kalemic effects of insulin.

 

Hypoglycemia following insulin administration for hyperkalemia:

· Occurs 1-3 hours post dose, even with initial bolus of dextrose

· The amount of glucose is insufficient to replace the glucose utilized in response to the administered dose of insulin

· Insulin’s half-life is increased in ESRD leading to longer duration of action

 

A systematic review of 11 studies regarding insulin dosing for hyperkalemia:

· 22 patients (18%) experienced hypoglycemia

· Studies that only gave 25 grams (1 amp) of dextrose had the highest incidence of hypoglycemia (30%)

 

Tips:

· Consider insulin dose reduction in patients with renal failure

· Use an order set to ensure patients receive appropriate POC glucose monitoring to detect delayed onset of hypoglycemia

· Dextrose 50% (25 grams) should be given to all patients with pre-insulin BG <350 mg/dL

Subsequent PRN dextrose 50% (25 grams) should be used to maintain BG >100 mg/dL after insulin administration

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Fever Treatment in Sepsis

Keywords: antipyretic, sepsis, fever (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/7/2017 by Ashley Martinelli (Emailed: 10/10/2017) (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Fever occurs in 40% of patients with sepsis.  Historically, there has been conflicting evidence of whether patient outcomes improve with antipyretic therapy.

A recent large meta-analysis assessed the effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality of critically ill septic patients.  The analysis included 8 randomized studies (1,531 patients) and 8 observational studies (17,432 patients) that assessed mortality of septic patients with and without antipyretic therapy.

The authors found no difference in mortality at 28 days or during hospital admission.  There was also no difference in shock reversal, heart rate, or minute ventilation.

As expected, they found a statistically significant reduction in posttreatment body temperature (-0.38°C, 95% IC -0.63 to -0.13) in patients who received antipyretic therapy.  NSAIDs and cooling therapies were more effective than acetaminophen, however no agent or dosing information was provided and only one study included physical cooling therapies.

Bottom Line: Antipyretic therapies do not reduce mortality in patients with sepsis, but they may improve patient comfort by reducing body temperature.

 

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Alpha-Blockers for the Management of Ureteral Stones

Keywords: Ureteral stones, Alpha-blockers (PubMed Search)

Posted: 9/2/2017 by Wesley Oliver (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Takeaways

Alpha-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin, and terazosin) are antagonists of alpha1A-adrenoreceptors, which results in the relaxation of ureteral smooth muscle.    Current evidence suggests alpha-blockers may be useful when ureteral stones are 5-10 mm; however, there is no evidence to support the use of alpha-blockers with stones <5 mm.  Patients with ureteral stones >10 mm were excluded from studies utilizing these medications.

The size of most ureteral stones will be unknown due to the lack of need for imaging able to measure stone size. Given that the median ureteral stone size is <5 mm, most patients will not benefit from the use of an alpha-blocker.

Also, keep in mind that the data for adverse events with alpha-blockers used for ureteral stones is limited and that these medications have a risk of hypotension.

 

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Levofloxacin dosing for CAP

Keywords: Levofloxacin, duration, dose, CAP, pneumonia (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/1/2017 by Jill Logan (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Takeaways

When you look up dosing for levofloxacin for community acquired pneumonia (CAP), you will find that both of the following options are approved:

  • Levofloxacin 500 mg IV/PO daily x 7-14 days
  • Levofloxacin 750 mg IV/PO daily x 5 days

This is based on a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active treatment trial comparing these two regimens in CAP (mild to severe). This non-inferiority trial shows that the 750 mg dose of levofloxacin for 5 days is "at least as effective and well tolerated" as the 500 mg dose of levofloxacin for 10 days.

So why should you choose the 750 mg daily x 5 day regimen?

  • Higher doses maximize the concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic profile of the drug
  • Higher doses and shorter duration may be associated with less drug resistance
  • Patients subjectively report feeling better at day 3 with the higher dose regimen

As alway with levofloxacin, don't forget to renally dose adjust subsequent doses when writting a script or scheduled inpatient order for patients with reduced creatinine clearance! 

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: S.aureus in the urine and the risk for bacteremia

Keywords: MSSA, MRSA, bacturia, bacteremia, Staph aureus, Staphlococcus aureus (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/4/2017 by Jill Logan (Updated: 8/17/2022)
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Takeaways

  • The incidence of Staphylococcus aurea as a urinary pathogen is increasing, however, this finding may represent more than a simple urinary tract infection.
  • One review found an 8-21%rate of association between S. aureus in the urine with bacteremia.
  • Additional work up, including blood cultures, may be warranted in patients with systemic symptoms, lack of access to follow up, and no urinary tract pathology or instrumentation.

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Takeaways

Haloperidol has a higher D2 receptor antagonist effect than standard antiemetic treatment agents such as metoclopramide. In addition, newer antipsychotic agents such as Olanzapine have a high affinity at multiple antiemetic sites such as the dopamine and serotinergic receptors.

While formal RCT's are still in the works, multiple sources including palliative care, emergency medicine, and pain journals support their use in refractory emesis.


Consider Haloperidol 3-5 mg IV. 
Check an EKG for long QTc prior to use. Consider dose reduction of haloperidol in those with hepatic impairment. Also consider dose reduction in patients taking carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or quinidine due to that pesky CYP3A4 inhibition. 

Consider Olanzapine 2-5 mg IV.

Several case reports have shown a higher rate of success with olanzapine for refractory emesis. Olanzapine has similar precautions as those to haloperidol (EKG, hepatic impairment), although it's CYP drug interactions are less common. Additionally, use olanzapine cautiously in hyperglycemic patients as there are several case reports of olanzapine prompting episodes of DKA. Consider frequent blood sugar checks or small doses of insulin in hyperglycemic patients. 

 

Take Home Points:

Consider the antipsychotic agents Haloperidol or Olanzapine for patients with refractory emesis, they may be more effective than traditional antiemetics. 

Get an EKG prior to administration to check for QTc prolongation. As the classical and atypical antipsychotic agents are sedating, use caution in conjunction with other sedating medications (such as benzodiazepines).  

 

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: On your radar: methadone-linezolid drug-drug interaction

Keywords: methadone, linezolid, serotonin syndrome, drug interaction (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/1/2017 by Michelle Hines, PharmD (Updated: 4/3/2017)
Click here to contact Michelle Hines, PharmD

Linezolid is a weak, nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). A recent FDA Drug Safety Communication released in March 2016 noted reports of serotonin syndrome associated with certain opioids, particularly fentanyl and methadone. Development of serotonin syndrome after concomitant administration of linezolid with other serotonergic agents has been reported. Due to a potential risk of serotonin syndrome, a patient on chronic methadone should not be started on concomitant linezolid unless they will be monitored.

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Takeaways

The addition of diazepam to naproxen for patients with acute, nontraumatic, nonradicular lower back pain did not improve pain or functional outcomes at 1 week or 3 months after ED discharge compared to placebo.

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Pharmacy Pearls from the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Guidelines

Keywords: sepsis, antibiotics, vasopressors, shock (PubMed Search)

Posted: 2/4/2017 by Michelle Hines, PharmD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
Click here to contact Michelle Hines, PharmD

Below is a list of pharmacy-related pearls from the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Guidelines:

  • Fluid resuscitation: 30 mg/kg IV crystalloids within 3 hours (strong recommendation, low quality evidence)
  • Vasopressors:
    • MAP target 65 mm Hg (strong recommendation, low quality evidence)
    • Norepinephrine 1st line (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). Epinephrine (weak recommendation, low quality evidence) or up to 0.03 Units/min vasopressin (weak recommendation, moderate quality evidence) may be added to NE.
  • Antibiotics:
    • Obtain blood cultures prior to administration, but do not delay antibiotics (best practice)
    • Initiate empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics within 1 hour (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence)
    • Consider double gram-negative coverage in patients with septic shock at high risk of multidrug-resistant pathogen
    • Risk factors for invasive Candida infection: immunocompromised state, TPN, necrotizing pancreatitis, recent major abdominal surgery, recent fungal infection
    • Optimize pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties- e.g., IV loading dose of vancomycin of 25-30 mg/kg is favored (best practice)
  • Corticosteroids: IV hydrocortisone 200 mg per day if hemodynamic stability is not achieved through crystalloids and vasopressors (weak recommendation, low quality evidence)

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Ketorolac's analgesic ceiling

Keywords: ketorolac, NSAID, analgesia (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/7/2017 by Michelle Hines, PharmD (Updated: 8/17/2022)
Click here to contact Michelle Hines, PharmD

Takeaways

In a study comparing ketorolac IV doses of 10 mg, 15 mg, and 30 mg, no difference in pain score reduction or need for rescue analgesia was observed.

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Esmolol in refractory ventricular fibrillation

Keywords: esmolol, ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/21/2016 by Michelle Hines, PharmD (Emailed: 12/3/2016) (Updated: 12/3/2016)
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Takeaways

Consider esmolol IV 500 mcg/kg loading dose followed by a continuous infusion of 0-100 mcg/kg/min for patients in refractory ventricular fibrillation 

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Subcutaneous UFH as Anticoagulation Bridge

Keywords: anticoagulation, warfarin, heparin, bridge, DVT (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/5/2016 by Michelle Hines, PharmD
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Takeaways

Do you have a patient with renal insufficiency who is in need of an anticoagulation bridge to warfarin? Subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (UFH) as an initial dose of 333 Units/kg subcutaneously followed by a fixed dose of 250 Units/kg (actual body weight) every 12 hours may be an alternative to admission for heparin infusion with monitoring.

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What they did:

  • End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients presenting to the ED for emergent hemodialysis (HD) with baseline QTc prolongation (>450 msec in men and >470 msec in women) were given antiemetics or antihistamines for symptomatic relief of nausea and pruritis. A repeat ECG was obtained 2 hours after medications were given.
  • Most patients received oral or intravenous promethazine 25 mg, ondansetron 4-8 mg, or diphenhydramine 25-50 mg.

What they found:

  • 44 patients had a mean initial QTc of 483.7 msec (SD 18.4). Two hours after medication administration, the mean QTc was 483.8 msec (SD 20.0).
  • Among 13 patients with initial QTc intervals >500 msec, 9 had an increased QTc interval after medication administration (average increase 11.8 msec, SD 6.7 msec).
  • 8 patients with baseline QTc <500 msec had QTc >500 msec after medication administration.
  • No patients experienced dysrhythmias, death, or were admitted for dysrhythmia or syncope 1 week after medication administration.

Application to clinical practice:

  • While the mean QTc did not change, the proportion of individuals who experienced an increase in QTc interval is not reported.
  • Although greatly limited by a small sample size, this study suggests that usual doses of promethazine, ondansetron, or diphenhydramine in patients presenting for emergent HD with baseline QTc prolongation may be safe.
  • Additional studies, especially in patients with QTc prolongation >500 msec, are warranted.

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Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) are used for INR reversal in patients on vitamin K antagonists (VKA) (e.g., warfarin) with life-threatening bleeding. Guidelines from the Neurocritical Care Society and Society of Critical Care Medicine recommend using PCC over FFP for patients with VKA-associated hemorrhage and an INR >=1.4.

New study-INCH trial:

  • Multi-center, prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing FFP IV 20 ml/kg + phytonadione IV 10 mg versus 4-factor PCC IV 30 IU/kg + phytonadione IV 10 mg
  • Adult patients on VKA with intracerebral or subdural hemorrhage with INR >=2.0 were included. Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage were excluded.

What they found:

  • Analysis included 50 (23 FFP and 27 PCC) patients (trial was stopped early after a safety analysis)
  • 2 (9%) patients in the FFP group and 18 (67%) patients in the PCC group achieved an INR <=1.2 within 3 hours (adjusted OR 30.6, 95% CI 4.7-197.9; p=0.0003)
  • Hematoma expansion at 3 hours was higher in those treated with FFP than PCC (adjusted difference 16.9 ml, 95% CI 2.5-31.3; p=0.023)
  • Time until INR <=1.2 was longer in the FFP group than the PCC group (1482 vs 40 minutes; p=0.050)

Application to clinical practice:

  • Of note, FFP 30 ml/kg has been suggested to provide more complete coagulation factor correction (this trial used 20 ml/kg), and package inserts for PCCs recommend doses based on INR and weight (this trial used 30 IU/kg for all patients)
  • Although the sample size was small, this study suggests that in patients with VKA-associated non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and an elevated INR, PCC may provide faster INR correction than FFP, and may additionally be associated with a smaller degree of hematoma expansion.

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Amiodarone 150 mg IV over 10 minutes and procainamide IV 20-50 mg/min (up to 17 mg/kg) are two antiarrhythmic medications recommended in the American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care for stable wide QRS complex tachycardia. [1]

What they did:

Multi-center, prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the incidence of major cardiac events in the acute treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with wide QRS monomorphic tachycardia (presumed to be VT) using amiodarone 5 mg/kg IV infused over 20 minutes versus procainamide 10 mg/kg IV infused over 20 minutes. [2] The study period was 40 minutes, starting from the beginning of the infusion.

What they found:

  • Analysis included 62 (n=33 procainamide, n=29 amiodarone) patients from 16 hospitals
  • Fewer patients treated with procainamide experienced major cardiac events during the study period compared to those who received amiodarone (9% vs 41%; OR =0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0.6; P=0.006). The most frequent adverse cardiac event was severe hypotension requiring electrical cardioversion.
  • Termination of VT occurred more frequently in patients treated with procainamide (67% vs 38%; OR =3.3, 95% CI 1.2-9.3; P=0.026).

Application to clinical practice:

  • Medication doses and patient weights are not reported in the results. A comparison of the doses used in the PROCAMIO study to those recommended in the AHA guidelines for a 70 kg and 100 kg patient are as follows:
    • Procainamide:
      • 70 kg patient would receive procainamide 35 mg/min for 20 minutes. This is in the middle of the dose range recommended by the AHA.
      • 100 kg patient would receive procainamide 50 mg/min for 20 minutes. This is the upper limit of the dose range recommended by the AHA.
    • Amiodarone:
      • 70 kg patient would receive amiodarone 350 mg over 20 minutes. This is approximately equal to administering 2 doses of 150 mg at the infusion rate recommended in the AHA guidelines.
      • 100 kg patient would receive amiodarone 500 mg over 20 minutes. This is approximately equal to administering 3 doses of 150 mg at an infusion rate over 1.5 times higher than that recommended in the AHA guidelines.
  • The study size was small, and depending on patient weights, it is possible that amiodarone dosing was more aggressive compared to doses commonly used in the US. However, the results suggest that procainamide could offer improved safety and efficacy over amiodarone for stable wide QRS tachycardia.

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Fluoroquinolones and risk of tendon rupture

Keywords: fluoroquinolone, tendon rupture (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/1/2016 by Michelle Hines, PharmD (Emailed: 7/2/2016) (Updated: 7/2/2016)
Click here to contact Michelle Hines, PharmD

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are used to treat a wide range of infections and as prophylaxis against infection in certain immune compromised patients. In 2008 the FDA issued a boxed warning for tendonitis and tendon rupture for the fluoroquinolone antibiotic class, and in May 2016 a statement recommending the use of alternate therapies for uncomplicated UTIs and upper respiratory infections was issued. The mechanism by which fluoroquinolones causes tendon injury has not been elucidated, but may be related to oxidative stress caused by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species in tenocytes.

Adverse event reporting to the FDA is performed voluntarily by healthcare professionals and consumers through MedWatch. An analysis of tendon rupture events associated with fluoroquinolone use reported to the FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database was recently published.

What they found:

  • 2495 reported cases of tendon rupture associated with fluoroquinolones
  • Most cases involved levofloxacin (n=1555), ciprofloxacin (n=606), or moxifloxacin (n=230).
  • Concomitant corticosteroids were administered in 21.2% of cases.
  • The mean age was approximately 60 +/- 5 years.
  • The ratio of men:women was 1.16:1.
  • Renal function was not reported in this study.

Application to clinical practice:

  • There is a risk of tendonitis/tendon rupture with administration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
  • Risk factors for fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathies may include advanced age, impaired renal function, and use of concomitant corticosteroids.
  • Alternatives to fluoroquinolone antibiotics should be considered for patients with tendinopathy risk factors.
  • When indicated, fluoroquinolones should be used at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time period to minimize exposure.

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Clindamycin vs. Bactrim for Uncomplicated Wound Infection

Keywords: clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, wound infection, TMP-SMX (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/2/2016 by Bryan Hayes, PharmD (Emailed: 6/4/2016) (Updated: 6/4/2016)
Click here to contact Bryan Hayes, PharmD

In settings where community-acquired MRSA is prevalent, which antibiotic is best for uncomplicated wound infections?

New Study

  • A new multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial in 500 patients compared 7 days of clindamycin 300 mg 4 times daily to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) 4 single strength tablets twice daily.
  • Follow-up was performed on days 3 4 (on therapy), 8 10 (end of therapy), 14 21 (test of cure), and 49 63 (extended-follow-up).

What They Found

  • Clinical cure rate was > 90% in both groups in the per-protocol population (p = 0.91), and also similar in the intention to treat populations.
  • Cultured bacteria were similar between the two groups:
    • MRSA ~40%
    • MSSA ~25%
    • Coagulase-negative staph ~15%
    • Strep species ~5%

Application to Clinical Practice

  1. It seems like either clindamycin or TMP-SMX are appropriate antimicrobial choices in uncomplicated wound infections.
  2. In this study, strep species were a minor component of the total cases. TMP-SMX is generally not strong against strep species, while clindamycin has good coverage.
  3. Consult your local antibiogram when appropriate. At our institution, clindamycin has poor in vitro susceptibility against MRSA.

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Predicting Hemodynamic Response to Ketamine for Prehospital RSI

Keywords: ketamine, shock index, hemodynamic, prehospital, RSI (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/3/2016 by Bryan Hayes, PharmD (Emailed: 5/7/2016) (Updated: 5/7/2016)
Click here to contact Bryan Hayes, PharmD

Ketamine is often thought to be the induction agent least associated with hypotension in the peri-intubation period. However, reports of hypotension following ketamine do exist, including 2 cases of cardiac arrest. [1] There are limited objective means to predict which patients may have an adverse hemodynamic response.

New Study

A new prospective observational study followed 112 patients in the prehospital setting who received ketamine for rapid sequence intubation. 81 had a low shock index [< 0.9], 31 had a high shock index. [2]

Shock index = HR / SBP

What They Found

Patients with a high shock index were more likely to experience hypotension (SBP < 90 mm Hg) in the peri-intubation period compared to those with a low shock index (26% vs 2%).

Application to Clinical Practice

  • This is the first study to evaluate a potential objective predictor for which patients may experience hypotension after RSI with ketamine. But, even with a high shock index, the majority of patients did not develop hypotension.
  • These findings should not lead to avoidance of ketamine in these situations, as other induction agents are equally or more likely to cause adverse hemodynamic effects.
  • It has been suggested to use lower induction doses in patients at risk for hypotension (with the same or higher paralytic dose). Patients with a high pre-RSI shock index may be the population in which to consider that approach.

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Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Vancomycin Loading Doses in ED Not Associated with Increased Nephrotoxicity

Keywords: vancomycin, loading dose, nephrotoxicity (PubMed Search)

Posted: 3/24/2016 by Bryan Hayes, PharmD (Emailed: 4/2/2016) (Updated: 4/2/2016)
Click here to contact Bryan Hayes, PharmD

Guidelines recommend loading doses of vancomycin (15-20 mg/kg, up to 30 mg/kg in critically ill patients), but the risk of nephrotoxicity is unknown. A new retrospective cohort study aimed to compare nephrotoxicity in ED sepsis patients who received vancomycin at high doses (>20 mg/kg) versus lower doses (20 mg/kg).

What They Found

  • 1,330 patients had three SCr values assessed for the primary outcome

  • High-dose initial vancomycin was actually associated with a lower rate of nephrotoxicity (5.8% vs 11.1%)

  • After adjusting for age, gender, and initial SCr, the risk of high dose vancomycin compared to low dose was decreased for the development of nephrotoxicity (RR=0.60; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.82)

Application to Clinical Practice

It appears initial loading doses of vancomcyin > 20 mg/kg do not cause increased risk of nephrotoxicity.

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A new guideline for convulsive status epilepticus in adults AND children was recently published. [1] An insightful commentary was published alongside it (both are open access). [2] The proposed algorithm is below. Here are a few additional points to note:

  • The guideline applies to convulsive status epilepticus.
  • A new level of evidence rating of "U" is utilized. It means "data inadequate or insufficient; give current knowledge, treatment is unproven."
  • It addresses 5 specific questions:
    • Which anticonvulsants are efficacious as initial and subsequent therapy?
    • What adverse events are associated with anticonvulsant therapy?
    • Which is the most effective benzodiazepine?
    • Is IV fosphenytoin more effective than IV phenytoin?
    • When does anticonvulsant efficacy drop significantly?
  • IM midazolam is incorporated as one of the recommended 1st choices of treatment.
  • One of the second phase therapy recommendations is levetiracetam 60 mg/kg! It is a level U recommendation. Be prepared for neurology to request this dose. There is no data in adults to support this high of a dose.

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