Keywords: Reverse Segond Fracture (PubMed Search)
It is common teaching that a Segond Fracture is associated with ACL tears. A reverse Segond fracture, avulsion fracture of the knee due to avulsion of the deep fibers of the medial collateral ligament, has also been described that was initially reported as associated with PCL tears. However, a more recent study has not been able to collaborate the PCL connection, but has shown that a reverse Segond fracture is associated with multiple ligamentous injuries to the knee.
Take home point: If you note a Reverse Segond fracture on your plain flips have the patient followup with orthopedics for a possible MRI, as they probably have other ligamentous injuries that might need treatment.
In the study by Peltola et al they looked at 11 years of patients who had CT of their knee and found 10 patiens with a reverse Segond fracture. They found "Reverse Segond fracture is a rare finding even in a level 1 trauma center. Cruciate ligament injuries appear to be associated with avulsion frac- ture, but every patient does not have PCL injury, as previously reported. Our results do not support the association of knee dislocation with reverse Segond fracture."
For a detailed discussion of Segond Fractures please visit Radiopaedia at https://radiopaedia.org/articles/segond-fracture
For Reverse Segond Fractures please visit https://radiopaedia.org/articles/reverse-segond-fracture
Keywords: Lisfranc Fracture (PubMed Search)
Lisfranc Fracture: Typically consists of a fracture of the base of the second metatarsal and dislocation, though it can also be associated with fractures of a cuboid.
Click below see image of fracture
Common current mechanism of injury is when a person steps into a hole and twists the foot. The original mechanism of injury that was described was when a horseman would fall of their horse with their foot still trapped in a stirrup.
Diagnosis should be considered if patient has difficultly weight bearing with pain on palpation over the 2nd and 3rdmetatarsals with an appropriate mechanism.
Keywords: back pain, manipulation (PubMed Search)
We all wish there was a great treatment regimen for our patients with back pain. However, most studies have shown that it really does not matter what you do, as most patients will get better in 6 weeks.
A recent study published in JAMA looked at the role of spinal manipulation to improve pain and function in adults with low back pain. They looked at 26 randomized controlled trails and found that there was modest benefit for spinal manipulation and it was similar to using NSAIDs.
So spinal manipulation may or may not work for some patients. Something to consider along with physical therapy if patients are not getting relief with home remedies.
Keywords: Back Pain, Treatment (PubMed Search)
Treatment of Low Back Pain
A recent recommendation from the American College of Physicians (Internal Medicine) now recommends nonpharmacologic therapies as the first line treatment of acute or subacute lower back pain lasting 12 weeks or less. This might bring more people to our Emergency Departments so it is important that we know their current recommendations.
Some nonpharmacologic therapies recommended are:
For acute back pain they recommend:
For chronic back pain:
Keywords: DVT, Leg, Cast (PubMed Search)
Take Home Point:
Low-molecular-weight heparin doesn't seem to prevent symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy or lower leg casting, suggest two trials in the New England Journal of Medicine.
The study was conducted by Dutch researcheers and randomized 1500 patients who underwent lower leg casting or knee arthoscopy to receive no anticoagulation or low molecular weight heparin. Patients were either treated for the entire duration of immobilzation or 8 days after their surgery (arthroscopy patients)
The rates of VTE in patients at 3 months of follow up where arthroscopy: 0.7% vs. 0.4%; casting: 1.4% vs. 1.8%. So overall very low rates of VTE, and no real difference between the groups.
A large cohort might have shown some benefit, but since the incidence is so low there is probably no reason to prophlactically treat these patients and increase their risk of major bleeding events, which was also low in the study.
The article can be found at http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1613303?query=pfw&jwd=000100949960&jspc=EM
van Adrichem RA, Nemeth B, Algra A, le Cessie S, Rosendaal FR, Schipper IB, et al. Thromboprophylaxis after Knee Arthroscopy and Lower-Leg Casting. N Engl J Med 2016.
Category: Infectious Disease
Keywords: cellulitis (PubMed Search)
Take home points:
Keywords: Davos, Shoulder, Reduction (PubMed Search)
Davos Shoulder Reduction Technique
Take Home Points
Interested, well find out more by watching this video by Larry Mellick https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2MsnjVNoPM or clicking the link below.
The Davos technique is a novel technique that requires no exertion on the part of the provider and can be done without sedation
Do the technique by:
The original article can be found here http://www.jem-journal.com/article/S0736-4679(16)00030-5/abstract
Keywords: Patellofemoral Syndrome (PubMed Search)
Patellofemoral Syndrome Treatment options
Patients do best with a combined intervention (ie, exercise therapy, education, manual therapy and taping) plan or patellofemoral bracing may improve outcomes for people with patellofemoral syndrome and the subtype of patellofemoral osteoarthritis.
For for the ED, we can start NSAIDs, and then have them follow up with Physical Therapy, A sports trainer if in organized sports, or with a sports medicine physician/PCP. Physical therapy is targeted at strengthening the quadricep muscle particularly vastus medialis, which improves the patella’s tracking with knee flexion.
Keywords: Patellofermoral Syndrome (PubMed Search)
According to the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat recently published in British Journal of Sports Medicine, the core criterion required to define Patelofemoral Pain (PFP) syndrome is pain around or behind the patella, which is aggravated by at least one activity that loads the patellofemoral joint during weight bearing on a flexed knee (eg, squatting, stair ambulation, jogging/running, hopping/jumping).
Additional criteria (not essential):
PFP is common in young adolescents, with a prevalence of 7–28%, and incidence of 9.2%.
Stay tuned for recommendations on treatment and diagnosis.
Keywords: Neck pain (PubMed Search)
Non-Musculoskeletal Causes of Neck Pain
Neck pain is a common complaint of people presenting to the ED. Most of the cases will be musculoskeleteal in origin and will respond to conservative therapy with NSAIDs or acetominophen. However, other non-musculoskeletal causes of pain could be lurky behind this benign complaint.
Don't forget to consider:
Keywords: PATCH, ICB, Platelets (PubMed Search)
The PATCH trail, recently published in the Lancet, looked at whether giving platelets to patients, that were on anti-platelet therapy (e.g.: aspirin, clopedrigrel, or dipyridamole) for at least 7 days at the time of their spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, improved neurologic outcomes and mortality.
This was a large (60 hospitals) multicener, open-label, masked endpoint, randomized trial that enrolled a total of 190 patients (97 platelet transfusion and 93 standard care).
The outcomes were surprising. Patient in the Platelet group had a higher rat of death or dependence at 3 months (Adjusted OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.18 3.56; p = 0.0114).
The authors concluded "Platelet transfusion seems inferior to standard care for people taking anti-platelet therapy before a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage"
Though this is the first study to look at this, the studies design and outcomes should really make use reconsider whether we give these patients platelets. The thought is that ICB or hemorrhagic strokes also have a component of ischemic stroke and a watershed area that's blood flow becomes compromised with the platelet transfusion.
TAKE HOME POINT: We should not routinely transfuse platelets in our patients that were on antiplatelet therapy prior to their ICB.
Baharoglu MI et al. Platelet Transfusion Versus Standard Care After Acute Stroke due to Spontaneous Cerebral Haemorrhage Associated with Antiplatelt Therapy (PATCH): A Randomised, Open-Label, Phase 3 Trial. Lancet 2016; 1 9
Keywords: osteoarthritis, nsaids (PubMed Search)
A meta-analysis of 74 randomized trials with a total of 58,556 patients was recently published in the Lancet that looked at the effectiveness of NSAIDs in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) pain.
Briefly, their conclusion was that:
You can find the article here http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2816%2930002-2/abstract
Category: Infectious Disease
Borrella mayonii a new species
There is a new bacteria that is causing Lyme disease. Borrella burgdorferi is the typical bacteria associated with lyme disease, but now several cases of Borrelia mayonii have been isolated from patients and ticks that live in Minnesota, Wisconsin and North Dakota. What is unique about this new species is that it is associated with nausea, vomiting, diffuse macular rashes, and neuro symptoms [e.g.: confusion, visual disturbance, and somnolence) along with the typical lyme disease symptoms of arthralgias and headaches.
Current lyme tests should detect this new species and treatment is the same as Borrella burgdorferi. The take home pearl is that we may see patients with "atypical" lyme disease symptoms so this should be on our differential for patients presenting with rashes, nausea, vomiting and neurologic complaints.
Keywords: Diverticulitis, antibiotics. (PubMed Search)
It seems like the standard treatment course for patients with suspected diverticulitis in the ED is to obtain a CT of the Abdomen and pelvis and then to start antibiotics. A CT scan is really only needed if you suspect that they have an abscess, micro perforation, are not responding to conventional treatment, or you suspect an alternative diagnosis.
However, what should the conventional treatment be? Several recent studies from Sweden, Iceland and the Netherlands have shown that patients treated with antibiotics did not fair any better then patients who were just observed. There was no difference in time to resolution of symptoms, complications, recurrence rate, or duration of hospitalization.
Several national societies (Dutch, Danish, German, and Italian) now recommend withholding antibiotics in patients free of risk factors who have uncomplicated disease, but these patients will need close follow up.
TAKE HOME POINT: Patients with diverticulitis can be treated supportively and probably do not require antibiotics unless you suspect they have complicated disease or are immunosuppressed.
Chabok A, Påhlman L, Hjern F, Haapaniemi S, Smedh K; AVOD Study Group. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotics in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Br J Surg. 2012;99:532-539.
Daniels L, Ünlü Ç, de Korte N, et al; A randomized clinical trial of observational versus antibiotic treatment for a first episode of uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. BMC Surg. 2010 Jul 20;10:23
Keywords: Salter Harris, pediatric, fracture (PubMed Search)
The Salter Harris Classification System is used in pediatric epiphyseal fractures. The higher the type of fracture the greater the risk of complications and growth disturbance.
Some common exam facts about Salter Harris Fractures are:
The Classification system as listed by Type:
For Maite, a helpful mnemonic is SALTR , Slipped (Type I), Above (Type II), Lower (Type III), Through (Type IV), and Ruined or Rammed (Type V)
A image of the fractures can be found on FP Notebook at http://www.fpnotebook.com/ortho/fracture/ephyslfrctr.htm
Quick pearl for those that are trying to complete their holiday shopping.
Patients will often complain of pain in 3rd and 4th intermetatarsal space and if you can reproduce the pain by compressing the metatarsal heads together then you have a Positive Mulder's sign. Check out the original pearl at https://umem.org/educational_pearls/1684/
Category: Airway Management
Keywords: back pain, steroids (PubMed Search)
Steroids and Back Pain:
This pearl, https://umem.org/educational_pearls/2805/, by Dr. Corwell reported on the trail published in JAMA that showed that Steroid use does NOT help in the treatment of acute sciatica. But what about just general back pain. Do steroids help with that?
An article published in January in the Journal of Emergency Medicine, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.02.010, reported on a randomized controlled trial of prednisone 50mg daily for 5 days versus placebo for the treatment of Emergency Department patients with Low Back Pain.
The study showed that at follow-up there was no difference between the groups in respect to pain, resuming normal activities, returning to work, or days lost from work. More patients in the prednisone group then the placebo group sought additional medical treatment (40% vs 18%).
CONCLUSION: The authors detected no benefit from oral corticosteroids in ED patients with musculoskeletal back pain, and it might actually increase their chance of returning for additional medical care. Just say NO to steroids in back pain.
Eskin B, Shih RD, Fiesseler FW, Walsh BW, Allegra JR, Silverman ME, Cochrane DG, Stuhlmiller DF, Hung OL, Troncoso A, Calello DP. Prednisone for emergency department low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Emerg Med. 2014 Jul;47(1):65-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.02.010. Epub 2014 Apr 13.
I hope you have had a safe and fun Halloween. Thank you to all the people that are staffing the EDs on a Saturday Night Halloween.
Prostate-Selective Alpha Antagonists have been tied to Falls and increased risk of fractues in elderly men. These medications can lead to syncope and hypotension putting patients at increased risk of falls. A recent canadian study showed that at 90 days of use; individuals on alpha antagonists were at increased risk of hospital visits for falls (1.45% vs. 1.28%) or fractures (0.48% vs. 0.41%). There was also an increased risk of head trauma.
Please warn patients that are on these medications of the risks, so that injuries can be minimized. They should take specific care when changing postural positions, and report episodes of lightheadedness to their PCPs.
The article can be found at http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h5398
Keywords: shoulder, dislocation, GONAIS (PubMed Search)
Shoulder Dislocation Reduction
Do you have a chronic dislocated that frequents your ED? Are you interested in teaching them a way to relocate their shoulder without looking like Mel Gibson from Lethal Weapon, https://youtu.be/Igrdi_lhhW4, then the newly described GONAIS method might be what you are looking for.
This technique has the patient grab the top of a chair with the hand on the affected side, and then slowly equating, effectively bringing the hand and arm above their head. Once in the full squat position the patient can step backwards which should reduce the shoulder. If not they can use the opposite hand to apply pressure to push the humerus backward and reduce the location.
The full article can be found at http://bit.ly/1iZ8a9z
Gonai S, Kamio Y, Matsuoka T, Harunari M, Saito Y, Takuma K. A new autoreduction method for anterior shoulder dislocation: the GONAIS method. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Jun 14. pii: S0735-6757(15)00492-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2015.05.053. [Epub ahead of print]
Keywords: policeman, heel, contusion (PubMed Search)
When patient's present complaining of heel pain we often think immediately of plantar fascititis,and heel spurs. If they jumped and landed on the heel with are concerned for calcaneal fracture. However, a policeman's heel can occur from repetitive bounding of the heel or from landing on it as in a fall or jump.
Policeman's heel has been descirbed as a plantar calcaneal bursitis, inflammation of the sack of fluid (bursa) under the heel bone, or a contusion of the heel bone due to flattening and displacement of the heel fat pad, which leaves a thinner protective layer allowing the bone to get bruised.
Regardless of cause this responds well to NSAIDs, limiting weight bearing, or taping the foot. If the repetitive activity is not reduced this can easily become a chronic cause of heel pain. A short video showing how to tape the foot can be found at https://youtu.be/nQtkwfJrhXo