Category: Critical Care
Keywords: CPR, Cardiac Arrest (PubMed Search)
It is well documented that when left to our own respiratory devices we will consistently over-ventilate patients presenting in cardiac arrest (1). A simple and effective method of preventing these overzealous tendencies is the utilization of a ventilator in place of a BVM. The ventilator is not typically used during cardiac arrest resuscitation because the high peak-pressures generated when chest compressions are being performed cause the ventilator to terminate the breath prior to the delivery of the intended tidal volume. This can easily be overcome by turning the peak-pressure alarm to its maximum setting. A number of studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this technique, most recently a cohort in published in Resuscitation by Chalkias et al (2). The 2010 European Resuscitation Council guidelines recommend a volume control mode at 6-7 mL/kg and 10 breaths/minute (3).
1. Aufderheide TP, Sigurdsson G, Pirrallo RG, Yannopoulos D, McKnite S, von Briesen C, Sparks CW, Conrad CJ, Provo TA, Lurie KG. Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resusci- tation. Circulation. 2004;109:1960 –1965.
2. Chalkias, Athanasios et al. Airway pressure and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A prospective observational study. Resuscitation. November 2016
3. Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 2010;81:1305–52.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: amikacin, Torsades de pointes, QT prolongation (PubMed Search)
Torsades de pointes and QT prolongation Associated with Antibiotics
The authors queried the United States FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from 01/01/2015 to 12/31/2017 for reports of Torsade de points/QT prolongation (TdP/QT).
Reporting Odd Ratio (ROR) was calculated as the ratio of the odds of reporting TdP/QTP versus all other ADRs for a given drug, compared with these reporting odds for all other drugs present in FAERS
FAERS contained 2,042,801 reports from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. There were 3,960 TdP/QTP reports from the study period (0.19%).
Macrolides ROR 14 (95% CI 11.8-17.38)
Linezolid ROR 12 (95% CI 8.5-18)
Amikacin ROR 11.8 (5.57-24.97)
Imipenem-cilastatin ROR 6.6 (3.13-13.9)
Fluoroquinolones ROR 5.68 (95% CI 4.78-6.76)
These adverse events are voluntary reports
There might be other confounded by concomitant drugs such as ondansetron, azole anti-fungals, antipsychotics.
This study confimed the previously-known antibiotics to be associated with Torsades de pointes and QT prolongation (Macrolides, Linezolid, Imipenem and Fluoroquinolones). However, this study found new association between amikacin and Torsades de pointes/QT prolongation.
Teng C, Walter EA, Gaspar DKS, Obodozie-Ofoegbu OO, Frei CR. Torsades de pointes and QT prolongation Associations with Antibiotics: A Pharmacovigilance Study of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Int J Med Sci. 2019 Jun 10;16(7):1018-1022.
Keywords: tendon, antibiotics, tendonitis (PubMed Search)
A recent article in Pediatrics attempted to estimate the association between fluoroquinolone use and tendon injury in an adolescent population.
Fluoroquinolones are thought to negatively impact tendons and cartilage in the load-bearing joints of the lower limbs through collagen degradation, necrosis, and disruption of the extracellular matrix.
Population: 4.4 million adolescents aged 12–18 years with filled outpatient fluoroquinolone prescription vs. an oral broad-spectrum antibiotic for comparison.
Fluoroquinolones included ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin
Comparator antibiotics included amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, cefalexin, cefixime, cefdinir, nitrofurantoin, and bactrim.
Outcomes: Primary outcome was 90-day tendon rupture (Achilles, patellar, quadricep, patellar, tibial) identified by diagnosis and procedure codes. Secondary outcome was tendinitis.
Results: The weighted 90-day tendon rupture risk was 13.6 per 100 000 fluoroquinolone-treated adolescents and 11.6 per 100 000 comparator-treated adolescents.
Fluoroquinolone-associated excess risk: 1.9 per 100 000 adolescents; the corresponding number needed to treat to harm was 52 632.
The weighted 90-day tendinitis risk was 200.8 per 100 000 fluoroquinolone-treated adolescents and 178.1 per 100 000 comparator-treated adolescents
Fluoroquinolone-associated excess risk excess risk: 22.7 per 100 000 adolescents; the corresponding number needed to treat to harm was 4405.
The excess risk of tendon rupture associated with fluoroquinolone treatment was extremely small, and these events were rare. On average, 50,000 adolescents would need to be treated with a fluoroquinolone for 1 additional tendon rupture to occur
The excess risk of tendinitis associated with fluoroquinolone treatment though larger was also small.
Besides tendon rupture, other more common potential adverse drug effects may be more important to consider for treatment decision-making, in adolescents without other risk factors for tendon injury.
Ross RK, Kinlaw AC, Herzog MM, Jonsson Funk M, Gerber JS. Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics and Tendon Injury in Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2021 May 14:e2020033316.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Right Ventricle, RV Size (PubMed Search)
Rapid Assessment of the RV on Bedside Echo
There are several causes of acute RV dysfunction resulting in a patient presenting to the ER with unstable hemodynamics. Some of these include acute cor pulmonale, acute right sided myocardial infarction and acute submassive or massive pulmonary embolism. While bedside assessment of the LV function is often performed by the ED physician, simultaneous evaluation of the RV can provide crucial information that can help guide therapeutic decisions to prevent worsening of the patient’s clinical condition. A rough guideline to determine RV size and function is below using the apical 4 chamber view.
Normal RV size : <2/3 the size of the LV
Mildly enlarged RV : >2/3 the size of the LV, but not equal in size
Moderately enlarged RV: RV size = LV size
Severely enlarged RV: RV size > LV size
Patients who are found to have RV dilation should be given fluids in a judicious fashion as the RV is not tolerant of fluid overload. Early diagnosis of the cause of acute RV failure should be sought to guide definitive therapy, but early institution of inotropic support should be considered. Frequent reassessments of biventricular function during resuscitation should be performed.
Guidelines for the Echocardiographic Assessment of the Right Heart in Adults: A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Endorsed by the European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography, J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010;23:685-713
Keywords: hospitalization, RSV, bronchiolitis (PubMed Search)
Willwerth B, Harper M and Greenes D. Identifying Hospitalized Infants Who Have Bronchiolitis and Are at High Risk for Apnea. Annals of Emergency Medicine 48 (4) 2006.
Keywords: hydrofluoric acid, burn, chemical burn, HFA, calcium gluconate (PubMed Search)
Hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid used primarily in industrial applications for glass etching and metal cleaning/plating. It is contained in home rust removers. Although technically a weak acid, it is very dangerous and burns can be subtle in appearance while having severe consequences.
Wilkes G. Hydrofluoric Acid Burns. Jan 28, 2010.
*Extracted from emedicine article.
Wilkes G. Hydrofluoric Acid Burns. Jan 28, 2010.
Category: Visual Diagnosis
50 year-old male with cough and dyspnea. What's the diagnosis?
Here's your answer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z4yxqRoKX04&feature=youtu.be
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Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Ultrasound, Trauma, Pneumothorax (PubMed Search)
While chest X ray (CXR) is routinely obtained in the setting of traumatic injury, ultrasound (US) is a fast and reliable way to evaluate for life-threatening traumatic injuries requiring emergent intervention, and is supported by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) guidelines. A recent Cochrane Review compared the test characteristics of chest US vs CXR for detection of traumatic pneumothorax when using Chest CT or thoracostomy as the gold standard.
There possible weaknesses of this study, including blinding in the original studies, and several studies may or may not have been at risk for bias as their risk of bias was ‘unclear’. However, the results were consistent across the studies analyzed and remained similar after sensitivity analysis.
Several anatomical as well as patient care issues may confound US findings for pneumothorax such as the presence of bleb, prior thoracic surgery or pathology, as well as main stem intubation.
Bottom line: While the presence of pneumothorax is on either CXR or US is highly likely to represent the a true pneumothorax, ultrasound is a far superior screen for the detection of pneumothorax in the trauma patient.
1. Chan KK, Joo DA, McRae AD, et al. Chest ultrasonography versus supine chest radiography for diagnosis of pneumothorax in trauma patients in the emergency department. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2018;2018(5):CD013031.
2. Mowery NT, Gunter OL, Collier BR, et al. Practice Management Guidelines for Management of Hemothorax and Occult Pneumothorax. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2011;70(2):510-518.
Keywords: non-accidental trauma, clavicle fracture, neonate, pediatrics, abuse (PubMed Search)
Q: What is wrong with this baby? And what Dx should you entertain?
Previously healthy 7d old presents after difficulty feeding, one episode of vomiting and now with intermittent apneic episodes.
Non-accidental trauma (NAT) is most prevalent in children 0-3 months of age.
Radiographically classic metaphyseal lesions, rib fractures, and multiple fractures in various stages of healing are most commonly described in child abuse cases.
How do we know this is not just birth trauma from a shoulder dystocia, LGA (large for gestational age), or difficult vaginal delivery?
The key is dating the fracture. In this recent publication by Walters MM et al, prior to 8 days of life, 100% of radiographs did NOT have callus present. Callus formation is highly unlikely in fractures less than 9 days old, and typically appears by 15 days old. Callus thickness decreases inversely with fracture age. Additionally, subperiosteal new bone formation is highly unlikely in fractures less than 7 days old and typically appears by 10 days old. Subperiosteal new bone formation increases in thickness inversely with fracture age. Therefore, a clavicle fracture in a 7 day old without subperiosteal new bone formation or callus is unlikely from birth trauma and NAT should be considered.
How can you tell if subperiosteal new bone formation is present?
Subperiosteal new bone formation appears as a hazy cortical margin or a thin layer of bone separated from the original cortex by a discrete lucent interval. The new bone increases in thickness with time and may evolve to appear as a lamellated or multilayered linear hyperdensity parallel to the cortex of the bone. See referenced article for great picture examples.
CT head without contrast if ≤2 yo
Skeletal Survey if ≤ 2 yo
AST, ALT, amylase, lipase, CBC, Manual Differential, BMP, UA, Urine Toxicology
Consults: Ophthalmology, Social Work, Child Protection
OH BUTT TUBE (Dark Green Top Sodium Heparin) for further inpatient team studies
Guided by history, however consider the following:
Full sepsis evaluation for neonate <30 days
Possible reflux or seizure evaluation
Consider NAT or Pertussis/RSV with cyanosis
It is controversial to send these infants home from the ED. Typically they benefit from 24 hours of monitoring, but this is a pearl for another day.
See article for further pictures of subperiosteal new bone formation:
Walters MM, Forbes PW, Buonomo C, and Kleinman PK. Healing Patterns of Clavicular Birth Injuries as a guide to fracture dating in cases of possible infant abuse. Pediatric Radiology. October 2014; 44: 1224-1229.