Keywords: Lidocaine, pediatrics, anesthesia (PubMed Search)
Topical Lidocaine for local anesthesia
Disclosure: I have no financial or invested interest in the product or the company.
1. Pharmacist's Letter 2008 24(9):240912
2. Cregin R. Improving pain management for pediatric patients undergoing nonurgent painful procedures. ASHSP April 15 2008;Vol 65(8):723-7.
3. Kaweski S. Topical Anesthetic Creams. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. June 2008; Vol 121(6):2161-5.
Keywords: asterixis, liver failure, elevated ammonia, flapping tremor (PubMed Search)
-- cardon dioxide toxicity
-- metabolic encephalopathies
-- Wilson's Disease
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: sodium bicarbonate, lactic acidosis, hypoperfusion, shock (PubMed Search)
Bicarbonate for severe lactic acidosis from shock?
Boyd JH, Walley KR. Is there a role for sodium bicarbonate in treating lactic acidosis from shock? Curr Opin Crit Care 2008;14:379-83.
Keywords: HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, pericardial effusion (PubMed Search)
Patients with HIV are at increased risk for several cardiovascular complications of the disease. The most common cardiac manifestation in HIV disease is reported to be pericardial effusion.
The presence of a pericardial effusion in HIV is a poor prognostic sign, an independent predictor of mortality (62% mortality at 6 mos is reported, compared to 7% in those without effusion).
The pericardial effusion is often associated with TB in endemic areas, but can also be associated with other organisms including Staph, Strep, Chlamydia, and some viruses. HIV itself can cause an effusion as part of a generalized serous effusive process.
Takeaway: In late-stage HIV patients with any cardiopulmonary complaints, it would be prudent to make bedside ED ECHO part of your usual initial evaluation.
[reference: Khunnawat C, Mukerji S, Havlichek D, et al. Cardiovascular manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Am J Cardiol 2008;102:635-642. Authors are from Michigan State Univ.]
Keywords: HIDA, narcotics, biliary colic (PubMed Search)
Biliary Colic and Narcotics:
It is common to give patients with biliary colic narcotics inorder to relieve their pain. It was common teaching in the past that Morphine should be avoided due to the fact that it could cause spasm of the spincter of Oddi. It is now known that all narcotics, even meperidine, can cause spasm or irritation of the spincter of Oddi.
So this weeks pearls are:
Many things can be fatal with only one pill or sip for a young child. One teaspoonful of Oil of wintergreen (5ml) contains about 7000 mg of salicylate (the equivalent of about 21 adult aspirin). It would take only one swallow of Oil of wintergreen to be lethal for a young child.
Other Potential single dose killers for your Pediatric patients:
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Oil of wintergreen
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice. July 2005.
Keywords: methadone, buprenorphine (PubMed Search)
Keywords: anisocoria, pupillary response, pupils (PubMed Search)
Category: Airway Management
Keywords: laryngoscopy (PubMed Search)
Quick Pearls for Intubating:
1. When intubating, make sure to use two hands!
2. Resist the urge to look for cords
3. Stylet shape is crucial
1. Our very own Ken Butler
2. Rich Levitan-Airway Course
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: norepinephrine, epinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, phentolamine (PubMed Search)
Phentolamine for vasopressor extravasation
I was recently informed of a case from an another institution in which a patient was started on a vasopressor medication via a peripheral IV while attempts at central access where attempted. The patient unfortunately suffered permanent extremity ischemia due to significant extravasation of the vasopressor medication into the soft tissue.
Keywords: bedside ultrasound, bedside echocardiography, fluid status (PubMed Search)
The longitudinal subcostal view on bedside ultrasound can be very helpful at addressing a patient's fluid status.
Take a look at the diameter of the IVC 2 cm proximal to the hepatic vein on this view and ask the patient to quickly sniff. If the patient has normal fluid status, the diameter of the IVC will collapse approximately 50%.
If you notice that the IVC completely collapses during the sniff, the finding is highly accurate at predicting hypovolemia and a low CVP.
If, on the other hand, the IVC doesn't appear to collapse much at all, the finding is highly accurate at predicting a high CVP and elevated right atrial pressure. This may occur in the presence of fluid overload from decompensated CHF, cardiac tamponade, and conditions associated with RV failure (e.g. massive pulmonary embolism).
Keywords: Splint, Basic, Position (PubMed Search)
Keywords: bladder ultrasound, pediatrics, cathe (PubMed Search)
Bladder ultrasound increases catheterization success in pediatric patients
Keywords: arsenic, diabetes (PubMed Search)
A recent landmark article has cited a connection between non-insulin dependent diabetes and low-level arsenic in our drinking water.
Keywords: cerebral aneurysm, SAH (PubMed Search)
---- 13 to 24 mm --> 14.5 and 18.4%
Keywords: subrachnoid hemorrhageRebeleeding (PubMed Search)
Complications of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
The three dreaded complications of SAH include the following:
Edlow, et al. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: update for emergency physicians. JEM 2008
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: PEEP, respiratory failure, ventilator associated pneumonia (PubMed Search)
PEEP in Nonhypoxemic Respiratory Failure
Manzano F, Fernandez-Mondejar E, Colmenero M, et al. Positive end-expiratory pressure reduces incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in nonhypoxemic patients. Crit Care Med 2008;36:2225-2231.
Keywords: cardiac ultrasound, pulmonary embolism (PubMed Search)
The apical 4-chamber view of the heart on bedside ultrasound gives an excellent comparative view of the sizes of the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV). The RV is normally ~ 0.5-0.6 the size of the LV. When the RV appears too large, certainly if the RV > LV in size, it indicates RV dilatation.
RV dilatation can be chronic (e.g. COPD or sleep apnea with pulmonary hypertension, etc.) or acute (e.g. PE, RV MI). How can you tell whether the condition is chronic or acute? Just take a look at the RV free wall. If the RV free wall measures < 5 mm, it's a pretty good indication that you are dealing with an acute condition. Think PE or RV MI!
[thanks to Dr. Jim Hwang from Brigham and Women's Hospital for providing this pearl]
Keywords: olecranon, bursitiis, septic, treatment (PubMed Search)
Olecranon Bursitis is inflammation and swelling of the bursa overlying the olecranon process of the ulna. Can result from trauma, overuse, or infection.
Treatment can consist of:
Remember aspiration has some major risks that need to be explained to the paitent:
They also need to know that the fluid will likely reaccumulate. So aspiration is not a guaranteed cure.
Keywords: Pediatric Intubation (PubMed Search)
In the rush of adrenaline that goes hand in hand with a pediatric intubation often the ETT tip can sometimes be coming out of the little guys toes after passing successfully through the vocal cords, so remember once you get it in and confirm with end-title CO2 detection (capnography or on a monitor) always remember:
Depth of insertion (cm at lip) = 3 x normal size of ETT
Start at this depth, auscultate bilaterally in the axilla to listen for equal breath sounds, and look for equal chest rise. If all are good then secure tube and get your chest xray.